Kashmir is a region located in the northern Indian subcontinent, is currently divided between India, Pakistan and China, is one focus of international disputes more important today.

The border between the two sectors is at a height of over 6,000 meters above sea level, so it is called the highest battlefield in the world.Image

Since 1947, date of creation of Pakistan and India, both countries maintain a constant conflict over the region of Kashmir that has caused numerous diplomatic bickering and fighting. The territory has been divided between India and Pakistan since 1947.India controls most of Kashmir, a territory organized as the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Since then they have fought three wars and several smaller conflicts, not yet found an effective solution to a dispute that is causing many casualties and human rights violations both by the Indian armed forces and armed groups from Pakistan.

The conflict between India and Pakistan

India and Pakistan have fought two wars since independence from Britain over the Kashmir issue.The conflict began in 1947 when the Maharaja of Kashmir, has decided to include the territory toIndiato prevent the triumph of the guerrillas, pro-Pakistan. Under the terms of Indian independence, the Muslim-majority territory to Pakistan would.Since then,Pakistanand the UN have repeatedly demanded a referendum on the status of Kashmirnever held.

The problem in Kashmir is not religious diversity that occurs throughoutIndia, but a political conflict arising from a disastrous territorial partition by Western powers during the process of decolonization.The set of people in Kashmir want to belong toIndiaorPakistanis less than 10% of the population. The vast majority of it would simply self-determination, be independent as a people of both states and the Chinese state. However, none of the political parties in India or Pakistan supports this because only defend their interests.

The violation of human rights in Kashmir

Various international organizations have been denouncing for years human rights violations, both by Muslim militants fighting for independence and which are supported byPakistan, as by the Indian security forces.

In their reports include torture, abuse, rape, disappearances, summary executions, the repression of democratic freedoms and restrictions on the media. So far, the conflict has killed more than 60,000 people, most of them civilians. Thus, in one of the most militarized in the world, its inhabitants are deprived of all hope to self-government, of a cultural project that respects the particularities of the population and an economic program that can bring development.

Current situation of conflict

In November 2003,Pakistandeclared a cease-fire that was quickly matched byIndia, and the following month, both countries agreed to establish direct air links and to allow its aircraft flights in the airspace of the other, after two years of prohibition.

Another step forward to establish relations between the two countries came in April 2005 when for the first time in 60 years, a bus service was established between Muzaffarabad in Pakistani control area, andSrinagarin the Indian area.

Thus, as seen in recent years there have been some advances necessary to maintain the hope of peace talks betweenPakistanandIndia. However, so far not been taken into account too the Kashmiri independence groups who consider leaving India to join Pakistan would move from oppression to another, and no doubt, are key players in any peace process conduct intended to Kashmir.Image

The solution of this conflict is linked to nuclear disarmament in both India and Pakistan, which, personally, I see very difficult. This is because the new multipolar system prevents nations afford to lose elements that ensure the security and national integrity. On the other hand, we can not deny the omens about the wars of the new century for natural resources will, so that the jurisdiction of Kashmiris disputed even by the Siachen glacier.

By Andrea Sánchez, Marta Saguar, María Cortés y Víctor Corvera.


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