3 junio, 2015
MADRID- Pamela Ledesma
Ahmed Correa Alvarez, an expert in the region that is from Cuba and is now residing in Ecuador. He is currently working for the Ecuadorian government in the analysis and innovation of education, selecting and giving out grants so that students without the financial means can study. Education is the key to getting in touch with the Latin American youth and providing opportunities for the future leaders of the world.
To be able to explain the current situation and complex dynamic of Latin America in terms of its political system we must look at some past elements beforehand. After the gas-run dictatorships were broken down and democracy was thought to have triumphed in Latin America many countries adopted a complex multiparty system. Since these multiparty systems are presidential and not parliamentary they could easily lead to crisis. According to Ahmed, the way to avoid a multiparty crisis is a complex and abstract task. Ahmed looks at two examples closely, Mexico and Spain to point out the crisis that can occur in any party system.
When observing a system like Mexico’s, where the traditional formations of parties play a critical role and fraud is part of the leading powers, usually tied to crimes, “there are little options left for a interior transformation, even for parties like PRD that present themselves as a left-wing party” argues Correa. On the other hand, when comparing multiparty systems from Latin America to the Spanish system that is coming out of a party crisis, and new “organizations like Podemos have generated a renovating process, sanctioning old parties and favoring new ones”.
What this means is that whether it is a strict two party system or a multiparty system, when there is enough social discontent and internal crisis the system reaches for new, healthier alternatives. Social manifestation is the key to any real change and that is true in Latin America’s multiparty system as well.
On the other hand, when focusing our attention on the future of Latin America, our eyes inevitably are turned towards the new tendency of the 21st century socialism. This is a regional, political transformation that is practiced by countries like Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Argentina. “It is a proposal, a new way of organizing politics and a response to the neoliberal model in the region while differentiating itself from the last century’s socialism”, states Correa.
We can think about the judgment of this model at a regional and more specifically at a national level. Ecuador, as an example, has already brought forth important results of social inclusion projects. Correa states several illustrative examples when looking at the benefits of this new model. For example, the rise in the investments in the public sector, groups that need the government’s attention the most, historically discriminated groups are now included in the public space. All these social factors stated before are now taken into consideration thanks to this new model.
Now, when contemplating if there’s indeed is a future to this doctrine, and the countries that have adopted this political stance, Correa pointed out two initial preoccupations.
1) To consider the real possibilities this movement has to create social organizations in an innovative and social manner. Correa states that, “this is not to be confused with capitalist practices of a welfare state, which is important, but has its limitations like, in some cases, putting the benefit of only certain social stratus before others, excluding others”.
2) The risks that the institution includes for certain processes like the bureaucracy and change between the relations between social agents and political leaders. This can be referred to the increment spending in the public space. If this happens, it implies “the denial of socialism and imposing a real possibility of failure and setbacks”, declared Correa.
Although the 21st century Socialist doctrine seemed to be an innovative, fresh doctrine, there are other key factors that could improve the future of Latin America, which should not be taken with a grain of salt. Multilateral, regional organizations are essential when looking towards a more successful Latin America. “ALBA could materialize efficiently things that governments have not been able, that’s what they’re here for” claims Correa. Multilateral organizations serve as political stabilizers; therefore, they’re necessary for any future advances in the region. As each day passes social workers, activists and the people of Latin America tackle these goals to get closer to becoming a prosperous region.