Symbol of Resistance

Symbol of Resistance


By Furkan Yıldırım 

“Where the people fear the government you have tyranny. Where the government fears the people you have liberty.”- Barnhill, John Basil

People have the power to change the fate of their country, change the ruling system or change the dictatorship system to democratic system. We all saw what people are capable of in “Arab Spring” or the demonstrations through Europe. But we will not talk about Arab Springs nor demonstrations through Europe, we will talk about youth movement in Turkey happened in June. As a Turkish citizen I was involved in that movement like lots of my friends did. We were tear gassed by police, beaten by police and harassed by police. And in the end, nothing may happened and everything returned same as they used to be but government learned an important lesson; when it comes to the corruption and injustice almost everyone become one in Turkey despite their ideological thinking and even their age.

It all started when government tried to demolish a park in the middle of Taksim, Istanbul and builds a shopping mall. That park is only green area in the Taksim, so when the government tries to demolish the park demonstrations started in almost every city in Turkey.

I have a special guest from Turkey to talk about demonstrations happened in Turkey. I thought good information about protest would only gathered from students from Turkey, because students were the main population who participated the protests. My guest is a resident in Istanbul and saw the protests first handed. She is 21 and almost eighty percent of the people who participated in protest are between 20 and 25 years old. We will talk about how protest changed the perception of government, what people think about ruling party of Turkey right now and the main reason of demonstrations are only because for the park or are there some other things behind of it.

My guest’s name is Gizem Yilmaz and she is studying at Istanbul Bilgi University. She is also involved in “Occupation of Gezi” and we will talk about how she got involved in and how she thinks about situation. We both have negative feelings for Turkey’s ruling party “Ak Party” but for this time we only going to talk about “Occupation of Gezi”. The interview made via Skype and with pre-determined questions. My first question was “How did you get involved with Occupation of Gezi“ and she answered with little bit regret and little pride because; she didn’t go any of the demonstrations instead she was responsible of social media missions. We can say that there were two divisions in the Gezi protests first; people who were doing demonstrations in the streets and the second people who were helping those people who doing demonstrations via social media. Gizem was in the second division, she helped people to get hospitals with sharing the nearest hospitals addresses, she shared the Wi-Fi passwords within the Taksim area so the people could get news and share what’s happening inside Taksim.BNYwQH5CcAAENqu

My second question was “Do you agree the way how government approach this whole situation?” Almost every person in Turkey even if they’re supporting government are don’t agree how government approach this situation and Gizem also thinks the same. She believes that government approaches the situation with very provocateur and un-respectful way. Because she argued that people who were there only tried to express their thoughts but government didn’t care about those who were there and tried to run over those people with brutal police force.  She says that Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan handled the crisis moment wrong and because of his mistake 6 people lost their lives because of police brutality.

My last question was do you believe anything has changed after “Gezi” protests. When she is answering this question you can easily see the glimpse of hope in her eyes. Because she believes that after the protests people have changed, they “woken up” and now they can see the truth. But there are still some government defenders and she says only lower classes and people who didn’t get enough education supports the government.

As we finishing the interview we are both happy for doing this kind of thing. She says “Show people what happened, show people our despair only then they can understand what we are going through”

A View from Within

A fight starts for many reasons. Sometimes such reason can be resolved in a few minutes, but in some cases a fight can take huge dimensions with a lot of characters involved with the same objective: a fight for rights.

In Turkey such fight has been going on for several months, but it was in May that it really started and most of the protests took place around this date. Most of the reasons are about preservation of some places in Istanbul, such as Gezi Park, and the right to freedom of speech without the harassment of authorities. Also, the constructions of a third bridge and a third airport are also complaints of the protesters, in which such would provide less groves to be seen by satellites. Having said that, how is the perspective of a random student about such protests? Approval or disapproval? The following article will show this vision concentrating on the Turkish fight for rights and freedom of speech by way of interview.

The student in question is named Burak Mermi, a 21-year-old student of Publicity at Yeditepe University. He lives in the Asian side of Istanbul at Kadiköy, where he lived his whole life. The interview was made via skype, with pre-determined questions, and questions that developed into new ones.

Burak Mermi

What is your position in relation to the demands?

I agree with all the demands, especially with the preservation of Gezi Park, which is a landmark of Istanbul. They want to turn the place into a dictatorship, but we won’t even let them start. They try to invade private life of people, with one of the ideas that women should have a minimum of three children. What good can come from that kind of government?

How did you end up knowing about the protests?

Only in social media, because all other media were showing little or nothing at all, just to protect the image of the city. That is why most of the protesters are young and students who are the demographic interested in that kind of media. CNN and NTV are good examples of biased media, who mostly only have interest in protecting the government’s image.

How was your involvement in the protests?

I went to the protests and prepared barricades to help against the police with some friends, but it was not of much help because they threw tear gas near us and we needed to disperse to protect ourselves. Me and my friends ran really fast without looking back, seeing that there is no way not to fear the police. Later we saw in the news that some were not as fast as us.

Do you have a lot of people you know involved? Friends or relatives?

Not that much, and I also don’t try so hard to convince them, because that kind of thing must come from within each person. It won’t make much of a difference if you just go because of influence. If you just go to take a picture and post it on Facebook and walk for fifteen minutes to then go home, you are better at your couch watching CNN.

Is there any other way to improve the rights of people instead of protesting?

Actually I don’t think there is another or better way to do it. What each one of us need to is keep going on and not forget about what we are fighting for. They can throw a bone at us and think that we will forget about the demands, but is our job not to, and to especially make them always remember what we are claiming for, so that the demands can be done.

The protests in Turkey influenced Brazil to start going out to the streets also. What kind of advice would you give out to them?

Mostly the same thing from the last answer(laughs), but also that if you are participating don’t ever go for violence, or you will end up giving them reason to do what they are doing.

I thanked Burak for his attention and he also did thanked me, saying also that he knows more or less about the situation in Brazil, mostly the corruption that occurs from time to time. He told me that if we ‘’nag’’ as much and as long as we can they would soon give up our rights. I thanked him once again.

Kim Gomes

Turkey and the EU: The journey is the reward

Since almost 18 years now, Turkey is trying to enter the European Union.
No other country has been on the “waiting list” of candidates for so long.
Considering the fact that Turkey works as a bridge between the so called Muslim world, the Middle East and the West, the importance and global influence of the country is enormous.
In order to enter the EU 35 chapters need to be opened, processed and finalized by a candidate-country.
Turkey and the EU could open 14 so far of which only one is finalized.

Public opinions of the accession of Turkey to the EU are very diversified.
The strongest opposition comes from current EU-members such as Germany, France and Austria who state clearly that Turkey does not meet EU-criteria.
On the other hand the main advocates are made up of Sweden, the Netherlands, England and the United States.
The greatest division and confusion however is to be found within Turkey itself.
The Turkish population had not agreed once on a clear and majoritarian opinion since the debates of entering the EU started in 1996 with the completion of the transition stages, the Customs Union.
Also the Turkish government is highly discussed, led by its major actors Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the Prime Minister of Turkey and Egeman Bagis, the Minister for European Union and chief negotiator.
Especially topics like Human Rights, the Rights of Women and Freedom of Speech are still crucial in Turkey while they are fundamentally important for the EU-policy.
Stefan Füle, the European Comissioner for Enlargement, describes the EU trustful according to positive negotiations with Turkey in the framework of accession although he also admits that ‘there is frustration on both sides’ seeing the length of the process.
After hearing the main advocates and opponents the key question still is not answered:euTurkey-

Is it the EU who cannot cope with controversial Turkey or is it Turkey that is just not ready to join the EU?
What decisive arguments are there in both theories and who can profit at the end?

In order to gain a more authentic discussion I interviewed the 24-year old Turkish woman Hilal Yildiz. She and her famlily live in the centre of Istanbul in Bakirkoy.
After graduating from high school in Istanbul she started studying the history and language of Spain. Despite her interest in Spain, her roots are Turkish and she believes in her Muslim religion.
At the same time she is unhappy about the current state of her country and the direction to which politics are driving. In the Interview taken at the 1.12.2013 in Madrid Hilal revealed the reasons of her views and gave insights to the thoughts of the Turkish community referring to the EU.

‘Public opinion is heavily divided due to a corrupt government, false promises and a lack of education’ Hilal answered to my opening question of how she sees the relation of the Turkish population to the actual government.
By referring these problems to the EU-accession, she added that the range of advocates and opponents could not be greater in the Turkish society.
In fact U.S. surveys show distinctive changes in the Turkish views according to the membership of the EU: While in year 2004 74% of the Turkish population were in favor of the accession the percentage went down to 43% this year. Furthermore only 20% of the EU-members support the entering of Turkey.
Hilal came up with a couple of reasons for this change. She explained that on the one hand Turkish mentality has developed and strives for a Turkey that is modern based on more democratic policies concerning Human Rights and Freedom of Speech.
‘However..’ she continued ‘..a big part of the population is strongly identity-based and deeply anchored the islamic religion. Therefore a Turkish statesman would be cautious by adapting european values without weighing out the costs and benefits.’
Even more after being left alone in the dark by the EU for so long, the Turkish people feel insulted and fooled, declared Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan.
These statements gain validity by another survey published in the Turkish press, that says there is ony 25 % of Turkey that still believes that Turkey will enter the EU.

Seeing this debate from a socio-economical point of view Turkey’s minister for European Union Bagis says the main barricades in EU-Turkey relation are ‘prejudices of Turkey being too poor and too Muslim’. He contradicts these prejudices by declaring that Turkey’s economical growth with 6 % p.a. exceeds the growth of other EU-states.
Furthermore social progress could be achieved. Especially in the last years reforms were established and the violation of Human Rights declined according to Amnesty International.

But the world is in disarray once again in June this year when the violent forces of the Turkish police attack protesters as well as unarmed civilians in Taksim Place.
‘It has been a situation of pure chaos and fear for months.                                                                                                   images
Normally the uniform of a police ofiicer gives you a secure feeling. In Taksim Place it was the other way around.’, Hilal described.
Minister Bagis justifies the forces with the necessity of certain violence presence in order to stop violent protesters.

Purely economically one might suggest the accession of Turkey to the EU is a win-win situation. Turkey has enormous water resources as well as energy reserves which would be of high value for the EU. Likewise Turkey gains trading benefits seeing that the EU is Turkey’s biggest trading partner.
‘There is more to it’ Hilal interrupted me. She explains that Turkey survived the financial crisis with outstanding stability in comparison to many European countries. ‘Therefore it would not only be a cultural loss by loosing the Turkish Lira but also a risky step seeing countries like Greece and Spain suffering throughout the Euro-Crisis.’, Hilal said.

Focusing on the cultural aspects the EU-accession of Turkey would connect the mostly Christian Europe with the Muslim World.
While advocates like U.S. President Obama claim that the EU would finally show face and accept the islamic religion as a whole by letting Turkey enter the EU, critics say that that the values behind Christianity and Islam are just too different.
Hilal who is a convinced muslim, living temporarily in Spain and studying its history, has personal experience of what is meant by the adaption of these two religion. ‘Respect and tolerance are the keywords in this matter’ she said by adding that she thinks that neither the EU nor Turkey lacks of this adaption.
‘The problem lies in the political system of Turkey which is much more affected by Islamic values than a European state by Christian values.’, she added.

Posting my final question to Hilal if Turkey should enter the EU in her point of view, she did not hesitate at all by saying ‘No, not under these circumstances.’
‘Neither Turkey is ready to join nor is the EU ready to handle Turkey at the moment.’
After recapturing the great amount of scepsis mostly among EU-countries but also within Turkey itself, Hilal’s conclusions show substance.

Nevertheless thindexe continuity of peaceful negotiations towards an accession is of high value not only for both parties, but also for the whole world, especially for the Muslim world.
While the EU strengthens the important relation to Turkey and the Muslim World, Turkey’s reforms are making it a better country. At least this is a point on which all advocates and opponents agree.
An agreement between the EU and Turkey has just been reached last week about easing on the visa policy for the Turkish and the Turkish responsibilities according to refugees. Also minister Erdogan plans a visit to the EU in Brussels in January 2014, the first time after three years. However the final decision about Turkey entering the EU is a matter of the future.

Conclusionally especially these recent events create a positive outlook for the future on EU-Turkey relations and despite the date and time of a final EU-accession, the common path is the right one.

By Karina Lüth

Elif Cerrahoğlu’s interview


celil oker




Nowadays, Turkey is facing with lots of things about democratical and evironmental.  I had a chance to interview with a university lecturer  from İstanbul Bilgi University with is located in İstanbul, Turkey. His major is Advertising and teaching in İstanbul Bilgi University but he had published eight detective novels since 1999. His books also published in Germany, Spain, Greece and Netherlands. My interview is about what’s going in Turkey in the past 6 months. Now, I’m going to write the maincases of the interview I made with Celil Öker.

Firstly, he is asked about the relations of the Middle East and Turkey and the respond is that he don’t have  much more idea than the general public in countryabout Turkey’s foreign policy and  it’s relations to Middle East. Everyone in Turkey thinks that Turkey tries to make a leadership in that region and he is totally agree with that. But as he said; it’s not a brilliant idea because it can manage the relations between the Middle East countries and Turkey. Secondly, and I think it’s one of the hot topics that Turkey is dealing with several years is United Relations and if Turkey will be in it or not.  As you all know, Turkey is dealing with this situation for years now and i asked for his opinion about it. His respond is not surprising because if you ask to people in Turkey, they will give the same answer like Mr.Öker  did. He says that “I think that there is about 200 years since Turkey look forward to Europe and this effort has been made accustomed, I don’t think that it will go away suddenly.  Of course, sometimes it can be faster or slower according to the changes of the government but this effort will last all along the line. More than economic and easy traveling benefit, United Nations helps people according to human rights, civilization and democracy and it will be going to be like that.”

“…I still keep my hopes alive to see much more independent Turkey in every way. “

Thirdly, a very hot topic different that United Relations were asked to Mr. Öker. It’s about a new subject in Turkey. Since July of 2013, there has been protests in Turkey against the government. People who live in Turkey divided to two parts; people who against the AKP government and people who takes place in the government side. The government tries to govern the public according to the region, Muslim. And 49% of the government don’t want to face with it. The protests were names “Gezi Park” because lastly the government came up with an event. According to this event, they wanted to ruin a park called “Gezi” which takes place on the heart of İstanbul, in Taksim. By saying the word “ruining”, they want to cut all the trees off to make a shopping mall there. Of course, that was the last drop on the glass. Everyone came out their houses to ve part of the protest  in Taksim. The fact that it turned out to be like protest is because the behaviour of the government to public. The government used police as a weapon agains the public and they do it very strength. With the gasbombs and the Toma’s(kind of a tank that shoot people hardly with water) it became larger. When it started there was really few people but when the police started to push the public hard- one week later-  there were millions in the streets in all around Turkey. So, I wanted Mr. Öker opinions  about this situation by asking how did the awareness of people in Turkey changed. He mentioned that Gezi park protests are shown to the government that Turkish people and especially the young ones appeal and has protect in their rights. He also said thatthe effects of these protests are started to appear. He also added “I dont think that there will be any returning to the past and also think that companions was really brave and strong eccept the government.”

Fourthly, because of the government don’t take a step back, we can say that in Turkey, dictatorship is coming up instead of democracy. I wondered that if he’s  facing with any difficulties in his daily life or not. He said “The environment that i live in and the people that i face with are not affecting from it. And even if you look on the daily life, it doesn’t seem very different from 5-10 years ago. It’s painful to see that the people in the government in Turkey have such thing like dictatorship in their mind but I still keep my hopes alive to see much more independent Turkey in every way. “

Lastly, in Gezi Park protests, there was a cencorship in media. In the first police attact June 31st 2013, in the mainstream media channel of Turkey, CNN Turk, broadcasted a penguin documentary on television. Television became one of the weapons  for  government to make us believe in something and they choose to hypnotize the public. He thinks that cencorship that media used  is embressing. He saw a good part in it, other than the mainstream media channels, people found new ones that is being watch less and started to watch them.




By Francisco Javier Rodriguez Plascencia



When usually it is being heard any term related to Middle East, Arabs or Muslims, usually it comes to mind a closed group of people who are united and suffering from the same pain, the endless wars along the whole region.

It is curious to mention that since centuries this region has been witness of endless bloody clashes of tribes, empires, and war on terrorism nowadays and has always seemed that what has made them be united, it is the religion they follow, Islam.

But it is being hardly known among the western population that in fact, one of the biggest problems that the Muslim community suffers from comes directly from their most precious pride, their religion. And it is due to the religion that Muslims are much more distanced to each others than it looks like, and due to this ‘’small’’ differences, bloody and heartless wars has taken place, just like what currently nowadays is being seen in Syria.

So it is of big importance to go hearing this issue that is taking apart the Muslim world directly from a person who has experienced it and seen it happening.

IMG_7860His name is Rachid Abderahim Aznag, he is originally from Morocco, where he was born and raised up as a Maliki Sunni Muslim, just like most of the Moroccan population, he grew up in a very poor neighbor along the Rabat shore, he describes his life as really healthy and always on a good environment among the rest of the neighbor, with lots of poverty and no jobs for their parents to have access to luxuries, but food never missed on the table, he said, he described also their learning on Islam ‘’when we are young, we are being taken to assist into a Islam school which is being selected by our parents or mentors, we suppose to have the choice to select which type of school we want to learn of Islam, since there are five different schools, Ja’fari, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali, but finally we all go to the Maliki cause all our parents have studied at that type of Islam school’’ He addressed. Besides the school where they decide to study, in Islam the major division is by Sunni and Shi1 . However are not the only divisions that Islam has, there are plenty of sects more such as the Wahabi, Salafis well known for being the most radical Muslims. However Abderahim, never experienced no racism due to his Islam school along his life, he describes it by saying: ‘’I never even thought that other Muslims who didn’t study Islam as my school would have anything against us, for me we were all Muslims with different opinions but nothing more than that’’. He got to know that he was not that right anymore. When he was 21 years old, the deficient Moroccan economy pushed him to go abroad to work, besides many other Moroccans who choose to go working at any point in Europe, he decided instead, to go to the Arab Golf, pushed by the marketing that this countries do along the whole region mostly during the Ramadan month, he was convinced of the good image that the TV sold them out, he tells us about his decision: ‘’I was just leaving high school where I was studying to administration too and I heard about the bad image that we Moroccans have in Europe, and didn’t feel like leaving in a environment were I was going to be fingered at just cause of my birth place or belief, so I decided going to United Arab Emirates due to its plenty of good marketing that they have among the Muslims countries like us, specially in Ramadan’’.

He arrived at the end of 2008 to Dubai, where he first noticed how many immigrants were. Mostly coming from countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and Somalia and of course from all over the Arab world. One of the first things he notices was the rough way of treatment from the Emir population to those who were not from the country and even worst when they profess another Islam school than theirs, he remembers it like this: ‘’It was not even my first year living there and working already for Carrefour when it got so obvious the rough way that these people from the golf were against all of us who were not citizen and I just realized then how bad it was when you mentioned that you were Muslim but from another school than theirs. Most of them follow the Wahhabi school, which has its roots from the Saudi Arabian tribes, they always mocked at us recalling us how dumb we could be to follow such school as ours, and even we call ourselves Muslims, this was a very common thing among us. That’s why when being asked what religion we profess, we just learn to say Islam and nothing further’’. Discrimination and racism due to your birth place and due to your belief is well spread all over the Arab Golf and even though there are plenty of laws2 against any kind of discrimination and racism in the country, usually immigrants such as Abderahim do not know anything about them, he says about this: ‘’We’ve heard about these laws, and they might be true, we do not know, but here it seems that citizens have more power and even worst for us if we want to discuss with a rich person cause we are taken to prison without a judgment or if we are lucky they send us back to our countries, which does not happen to be honest’’.

Stories like his are being heard and experienced every single day along the Arab Gulf countries, generating anger and frustration among their own neighbors, mostly due to their religion belief, making the Muslim community far from each other than trying to get them closer and united. When ask about what he would do about this situation and if he would like to keep living like that in the UAE Abderahim finishes up interview by saying strongly: ‘’To be honest I am able to handle all this just cause I am making more money than I could do back in my country, but its not a happy life, would not want my children to grow up here neither my wife to live here, as soon as I can find a good job back in my country, I will be leaving this country forever, and of course would never see these people –Arabs from the gulf- the same way as they say to be on TV’’.

As being seen some issues just like religion that seems to keep large groups of people with all different cultural backgrounds together, just like the Muslims, are being taken apart due to its intolerance and lack of understanding that there are other ways to think and belief even inside their own religion.


1 To know more about the differences between Sunni and Shi, can visit the following website which has a very detailed data base comparing them both:

2 For further information about how discrimination law applied on the UAE are going; the following link can be a good overview of its actual context.


As a country when it comes to feel threatened by the idea that your neighbor could be looking to obtain a nuclear weapon, you would immediately look to sabotage their plans by imposing dozens of sanctions, taking advantage of your alliance with the super powers, and keep alleging how bad nuclear weapons are and how much instability creates on the whole region, if this doesn’t work neither, then the next step is to achieve by yourself openly atomic warheads and begin to create a nuclear plan to obtain homemade nuclear bombs, without worrying about sanctions from power countries cause they are your allies. As all of this would not have much sense for many of us, it seems to be very logical for the Saudis, who are openly an enemy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and is totally against is nuclear energy program, which so far has been proved to be nothing more than an energy program.

King Abdullah

King Abdullah

On November 24, Iran and the United States, China, Russia, France and Britain sealed a six-month deal in Geneva1 for a full resolution of the dispute on the Persian nuclear energy program, resulting on an historic agreement.

As described on the actual Joint Plan of Action (the nuclear deal between Iran and six world powers) ‘‘the goal for these negotiations is to reach a mutually-agreed long-term comprehensive solution that would ensure Iran’s nuclear program will be exclusively peaceful. Iran reaffirms that under no circumstances will Iran ever seek or develop any nuclear weapons’’

As a reaction on this historical agreement, Abdullah al-Askar, the chairman of the foreign affairs committee appointed: “I am afraid Iran will give up something on to get something else from the big powers in terms of regional politics. And I’m worrying about giving Iran more space or a freer hand in the region,” he said.

Based on the records of Reuters, Saudi Arabia has the technology to deliver warheads since 1980. During the same time the Saudis secretly bought dozens of CSS-2 ballistic missiles from China. In 2009, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia warned the US special envoy that if Iran crossed the line, “we will get nuclear weapons”.

For David Albright, the head of the Institute for Science and International Security for Saudi Arabia to acquire nuclear weapons would mean withdrawing from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Any US military sales would have to stop.


Nuclear Insist

Iran has been facing with economic embargo for 34 years and with the agreement that the government accepted in Geneva, may be cause to new allies come up in Middle East. Middle East was dealing with two important things in the last two weeks. First one is about Egypt and Turkey’s strategic locations and the second one is about the agreement in Geneva. The political broadcaster of Al Jazeera –Mervan Bişara- says that the uzlaşma between Washington and Tahran will cause new allies in the Middle East. On the other hand, according to Shashank Joshi from the Royal United Services Institute rapprochement of Iran and U.S can change the power in Middle East. Joshi also thinks that, in case of any attack from Washington,  Saudi Arabia and other Arabic countries won’t be able to defend themselves.

The International Atomic Energy(IAEA) has been met  and the community agreed that it’s forbidden to have nuclear weapons in the middle east countries.

The President of U.S, Barrack Obama, says about the meeting that it would help Iran to provide against having nuclear weapons.

Key points of the deal have been released by the White House:

  • Iran will stop enriching uranium beyond 5%, and “neutralise” its stockpile of uranium enriched beyond this point
  • Iran will give greater access to inspectors including daily access at Natanz and Fordo nuclear sites
  • There will be no further development of the Arak plant which it is believed could produce plutonium
  • In return, there will be no new nuclear-related sanctions for six months if Iran sticks by the accord
  • Iran will also receive sanctions relief worth about $7bn (£4.3bn) on sectors including precious metals

Iranian President, Hassan Rouhani, the right of uranium amplification has discovered. However, Israil thinks that the result of the agreement was a “terrible mistake” because Rouhani thinks that Israel has right to defend themself if it’s necessary. According to the speech of Rouhani, Kerry said that the agreement will be more safier for allies in the Middle East, especially Israel.

What Iran will do:

  • Halt enrichment of uranium above 5% purity. (Uranium enriched to 3.5-5% can be used for nuclear power reactors, 20% for nuclear medicines and 90% for a nuclear bomb.)
  • “Neutralise” its stockpile of near-20%-enriched uranium, either by diluting it to less than 5% or converting it to a form which cannot be further enriched
  • Not install any more centrifuges (the machines used to enrich uranium)
  • Leave half to three-quarters of centrifuges installed in Natanz and Fordo enrichment facilities inoperable (Read our guide to Iran’s nuclear facilities)
  • Not build any more enrichment facilities
  • Not increase its stockpile of 3.5% low-enriched uranium
  • Halt work on the construction of its heavy-water reactor at Arak, not attempt to produce plutonium there (an alternative to highly enriched uranium used for an atomic weapon)
  • Provide daily access to Natanz and Fordo sites to IAEA inspectors and access to other facilities, mines and mills
  • Provide “long-sought” information on the Arak reactor and other data 

What the world’s power do:

  • Provide “limited, temporary, targeted, and reversible [sanctions] relief”. Not impose further nuclear-related sanctions if Iran meets its commitments
  • Suspend certain sanctions on trade in gold and precious metals, Iran’s automotive sector, and its petrochemical exports
  • Licence safety-related repairs and inspections inside Iran for certain Iranian airlines
  • Transfer $4.2bn (£2.6bn) to Iran in instalments from sales of its oil