No plan B

Since last Friday, massive shootings, killings and bombings have been the order of the day inSyria- especially people of the village Houla have experienced horrific past days due to the massacre carried out by the Syrian military. According to Amnesty International, at least 108 deaths have been found in the region of Teldo, most of them women and children. In fact, since the UN observer mission started over 1300 people have been reported dead.

“11-year old boy from Houla survived the massacre by smearing himself in his brother’s blood and playing dead….” (twitter) Children are lying in a morgue in Houla and “waiting” to be buried. (amanpourblogs) A film student, Bassel Shahade, was shot on Monday while filming the massacre. A woman named Fawzia fainted after she was shot through her hand. When she regained consciousness, the scene that greeted her was one of horror. “I looked around and I found my daughters dead”, she told The Daily Telegraph by telephone from Houla still weeping uncontrollably. “One of them – her hand was cut off. My cousin and her four sons were killed. My sister and her six-week-old daughter were killed. I want someone to save us. Where can I go, where in the world is there anyone to protect us? What is the guilt of a six-week-old child?”

Child Survives Al-Houla Massacre By Playing Dead: on the brink of civil war. The children, women and men of Houla were not killed by random shelling. The UN yesterday revealed that they were murdered, one by one. According to the UN the militia came in the night armed with knives and guns and the young victims were executed with a bullet to the head or a knife to the throat. When will these cruel and unjust killings end? Why is the whole world watching and not acting? Why isRussiastill “supporting” Assad? At the moment, it seems like nobody has an answer to these questions.

In the last couple of days – especially in the past few hours – the news has been coming thick and fast. The social media channels like twitter and facebook are exploding due to people posting the latest news from the country and asking the world for help. Despite this the United Nations and the Western world want to find a diplomatic solution for this issue. The current situation is as follows:

  • 13 countries have now asked Syrian diplomats to leave
  • Security council to be briefed on Annan’s talks with Assad
  • ChinaandRussiarule out forced regime change
  • UN confirms further killings inSyria
  • Russiais “categorically against” a military intervention

ConsideringRussia’s stance for not getting involved, the world is still waiting for action from the country. Even Ban Ki-Moon, General Secretary of the UN, says that at the moment there is no plan B. The world has to hope that a diplomatic solution can be achieved. But if the UN and the Western World do not intervene very soon it will have an even worse ending for the Syrian people. Hence there is only one real solution – a political transition that begins with the departure of the Assad-Maklouf family mafia, and a change in government needs to come about sooner rather than later to help start what will be a very tough rebuilding effort. This process of change could begin tomorrow, ifRussiawould see the necessity for intervention, along with support for the UN and the proposed peace-plan.


Linn Andersson, Jesús Alcántara Landa, Danira Milosevic and Ángela Gutiérrez Moreno.

Bahrain – the forgotten islands in the shadows of the Arab Spring.

Bahrain which means “two seas” could be considered as the forgotten islands in the Arab Spring’s movement. For several years a tension between Shiites and Sunni Muslims has lurked more or less under the surface hence the minority group of Shiite feeling their human rights are being violated by the Sunni led government. The constitutional monarchy of Bahrain is led by the Sunni Muslim orientated supreme authority of the king, previously known as the emir. In 2002 a reform was implemented which would open up for Shiites into the governmental bodies and improve the human rights. Nevertheless Twitter and Youtube have exploded of publications regarding another side of today’s Bahrain, a Bahrain far from the Gran Prix Formula 1 race the government wants the world to see.

Organisations like “Internet Liberty”, “Human Rights Channel” and “” are some of the media sources leaking out the fairly silenced stories of the Al-Khawaja family and their fight for democracy and human rights in Bahrain. So far it however haven’t been brought as much light upon the situation in Bahrain as the riots in Syria, Libya and Egypt, but maybe the global social medias are about to change that.

In February 2011 an intent to follow the path of Egypt emerged in the capital of Baharain, Manama. One of the executors and coordinators was the Danish-Bahraini  Abdulhadi al-Khawaja, a political and human rights activist who was sentenced to lifetime in jail due to his participation in the riot. The trail against him, initiated in May last year, was a process strongly criticised by Amnesty as well as UN and the European Union accused of being unfair and based on false proofs. Mr al-Khawaja stated in front of the court being sexual abused and tortured during his arrest, accusations that were dismissed by the judge. In January this year al-Khawaja initiated a week long hunger strike together with 13 other prisoned demonstrators from inside the jail. After a short break he continued this protest to provoke a debate and to catch the attention of the outside world about the circumstances within the country. His health conditions have worsened lately and his wife Khadija al-Maousawi explained in an interview with BBC  that he’s state had been so severe that authorities acquired medicals to force-fed him, although against his will. Khadija mediated that her husband, after recovered, declared: “My hunger strike is not for negotiation. I’m not going to stop until I’m free either by death or by coming out of jail.”

Also the daughters of Abdulhadi and Khadija are progressive activists. One of them, Zainab al-Kawaja, has been the voice of her father during his imprisonment tweeting his messages out to the world. At the end of April she wrote:

“Firstly, my father is completely convinced in what he is doing. Secondly, he asks that nobody attempts to go on a similar strike until death. Finally, my father said: ‘If I die… I ask the people to continue on path of peaceful resistance. I don’t want anybody to be hurt in my name’.”

A few days ago Zaniab herself initiated a hunger strike to draw attention to her father and the situation in Bahrain. She was, according her mother, beaten up and almost strangled to death by a police women when arrested for her non-violent hungers strike demonstrations.

In an interview with Zainab on Human Rights Channel last fall, she express a great admiration for her father’s fight and announced her willingness to continue in his footpath in spite the fact that she would endanger the safety of her little child, husband mother and sisters. Yet the family are aware of the venture at stake for keeping up this battle against the government but nevertheless they strongly support Zainab and Abdulhadi no matter what the costs. Zainab apparently still keeps up a good spirit from inside the prison despite of the abuse and consolidated her mother by saying:

”Mom, everything has a price to be paid and this is the price we are paying. If I want my father to be free we have to be patient and if we want democracy for the people of Bahrain we have to be patient.”

By: Linn Andersson,
Jesus Alcantara Landa,
Danira Milosevic
& Angela Guitierrez Moreno

Oil and Gas in Marocco

Many of us think the oil and natural gas exist only in a few countries, but now days the search for this called “black gold” it’s became more competitive and expansionist that we ever can imagine.

On May 1st, the search of oil from Longreach Oil & Gas in Morocco start whit an investigation in the zone for a new investment from the British company. “Several years ago overhauled its oil and gas laws to open the doors to foreign investment” say John Kingston in the Platts/Oil Council podcast that celebrates in that county.

Longreach Oil & Gas largest British firm in the field of exploration and extraction of oil and gas is the most interested in this new opening by the Moroccan government, which is a very good investment opportunity and business for this, since it is believed that less than 150,000 square miles to explore potential areas have been attacked by various mining companies that flood the country.

The company has located its interest in the north of the country “last under-explored basin in North Africa,” says Andrew Benitz. Which is viewed with great interest, as opposed to Lybia and Algeria, Morocco, the state participation in foreign investment in general does not take much involvement or interest.

The opportunity to find oil and gas in Morocco starts again for different investor who wants to explode the potential in the zone. However there are not confirmed locations to extract the precious treasure. The fiscal terms are some of the most attractive for such projects worldwide investment the state receives 25 percent of any project and a royalty of 5 percent if there is gas, which rises to 10 percent for oil, if we talk about the quantities produced annually, is a low figure compared.

Although there are several companies that extract oil in this country today, such as Brazil so Petrobras, Shell, Total Maroc among others, the exploration has been arrested in recent years known as the wells are already in the hands of different extractive large and small.

Exploration for oil in Morocco first Began in 1929 and by 1939, production was 5.000 tons / year of oil, and has been increasing over the years. Most production of oil and gas well just as the exploration of areas in the areas of Basin Essaouira Rharb boomed in the decade of the 70’s, where I have to present to turn these areas into a total exploitation of 29.000 square kilometers and some of the most important in the country.
This is an opportunity for many small independent exploration companies to do business, and also for the country to keep economy move.

Bachir Ben Barka, says “This is an opportunity for all to increases our economy”, whit the new exploration an extraction, Morocco could improve a new plan for investment, also whit the new tourism plan by Yassir Zenagui ministry of tourism the new Morocco economy get rise in a new form that is convenient for everyone.

Jesus Alcantara Landa
Danira Milosevic
Linn Andersson
& Angela Gutierrez Moreno

“Be the change that you wish to see in the world” – Mahatma Gandhi

As it was task of the course “observatorio de la actualidad” to find and interview a person related to the region we are observing the whole semester I chose to speak to a classmate from Austria, John Sourial, 34. He is originally from Egypt and he was part of the revolution in 2011. As my group is following the occurrence in the Middle East, I have decided to interview John about the Arab Spring and the current situation in Egypt.

The Arab spring changed a lot in the Middle East. But before writing about the revolution my interview partner will be introduced. (Illustration 1)

John first started our conversation with an interesting phrase – “I see myself as a cosmopolitan”. Undoubtedly the reason for this has been his interesting upbringing.

He was born in 1978 in Suez, north of Egypt, and grew up as a son of a public officer and a teacher – his sister and mother still live in Egypt. After attending the school for Higher Vocational Service Industries and Tourism Management, he started his tourism studies. Austria was not only his choice for the international semester but also it was supposed to be his new home. At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna to learn German and complete his studies. Although, after his father got sick, he decided to give up studying and work in Austria to support his family. Working in all kinds of areas, for example hotels, restaurants etc., and after spending 5 years in the country he became an Austrian citizen and was subsequently awarded with an Austrian passport. An unfortunate event, his fathers death in 2007, made him move away from Vienna to Innsbruck to do his high school diploma for Austria and apply to study at the same university as me.

Through a somewhat “lucky” incident, he was in Egypt when the Egyptian revolution began. Inspired by the protests in December in Tunisia, the revolution started in Alexandria and Cairo. It was the 25th of January 2011 in Suez, when a policeman shot an innocent civilian in front of all demonstrators during a protest against the president. This was the trigger for the people to stand up against the regime, which was rife with corruption, arguably created an economic crisis, and suppressed many of the citizens. The anger and the hatred against “the system” (John used this phrase to describe the government) were so strong that within 24 hours millions of people gathered around and protested together against the regime of Mubarak. The revolution spread like wildfire throughout Egypt because people were communicating over social media, like facebook and twitter, other social media and radio. Mostly young, politically committed people organized “structured and peaceful” demonstrations that were destroyed and “interrupted” with massacres over and over again by the military. Their demands were for the resignation of the president Muhammad Husni Mubarak, change to a democratic political system and the equality of Muslims and Christians. This was because the people believed in a better life and in a new Egypt they would stand strong together and achieve the resignation of Mubarak.

John Sourial was part of the demonstrations and the celebrations at the main square of the city Suez (as illustration 2 and 3 show). During this whole period of the revolution he was spreading information and pictures, and kept his Facebook ‘friends’ updated.

Since then the military took over and the “revolution” stagnated. According to John: “Nothing has changed”. The situation today is difficult and complicated to describe. It needs a lot of background information to understand the current and possible future government. In the next couple of months the first democratic election will take place. Interestingly, at the moment the parliament consists of 75% Islamic members – it seems that the Christian minority is suppressed again and that it will not change in the future. A radical Islamic group, which was forbidden during the Mubarak regime, has risen up again and according to John people fear a “new Afghanistan” if this party gets to power. Egypt is suffering at the moment from a bad economy, decline in tourism, unemployment, and in parts of Egypt people are suffering from hunger. His family is included in this. His brother-in-law, who is employed in the tourism sector, suffers from irregular work and therefore there is always a “fight” for the money. But John is trying really hard to make provide for his family and make it possible for them to survive such a difficult period.

As I witnessed myself; he works long hours alongside his studies to provide his family in Egypt with a better life. Yet he is still worried about Egypt and its citizens. In his opinion the situation will not change if the Islamic party gets into parliament and this will mean no improvement, even a worsening of the situation.

The hope lies, therefore, in the people and the Egyptian system to let the right people ‘control’ the country and get Egypt back-on-track. And it definitely needs more people like John, who is making an effort and fighting as much as he can to make Egypt a better place – the place it should be.

Danira Milosevic

Interview with Arturo Manso (TEKA Küchentechnik), Dubai, United Arab Emirates

By Angela Gutierrez Moreno

TEKA Küchentechnik is a leading German manufacturer of full-range domestic built-in kitchen appliances founded in 1925. The business is one of the world-wide leaders in the manufacture of sinks and electric home appliances and its divisions range professional and domestic equipment for the kitchen and bath, containers of stainless steel, electronics and communications. TEKA employs 5000 employees worldwide and has subsidiaries in 38 countries, exporting to more than 100 countries in the world. Recently, TEKA has been awarded with the prestigious Emirates Quality Mark recognition, acknowledging it for its quality standards and procedures in its manufacturing process. It is the first brand in its category that receives the recognition.

I had the great pleasure to interview TEKA’s Managing Director in the United Arab Emirates Arturo Manso. We held an interesting “tête-à-tête” for almost one hour per Skype; Mr. Manso made out of the interview a remarkably enjoyable conversation. It was not easy selecting the information that went up to 800 words, since all facts that he told me were fascinating for me.

TEKA Küchentecknik was established in theUnited Arab Emiratesin 2003. Mr. Manso marched to the Emirates almost 10 years ago with the objective of implanting the enterprise there. Currently he lives in the city ofDubai, which he describes as a “little-big” city. It offers everything a big city can offer. Security, respect for people and property, the harmony among which more than 100 nationalities live regardless of their level of life and the facilities that the country offers to foreigners to live and develop their businesses, are issues that exist in very few countries in the world. In addition, the country and government cares for the Emiratis and gives them certain benefits by sharing with them the country’s resources. But, how is the issue of freedom of speech in the UAE? I found it interesting that nowadays and, in relation to the Emirates’ great living standards, there are many aspects that outweigh some small gaps or limitations of expression: it is not allowed to demonstrate or make unions. In this aspect, I was also wondering if TEKA was also safe and outside the conflicts in Emirates’ adjacent areas and suffering these at a commercial level, to what Mr. Manso answered that the brand had been quite apart from the conflicts in the area, “and I hope it stays that way”. The only conflict that could affect the business in short terms could be the eventual chain of problems that could be created betweenIranand the rest of the world, asIranis very close to the UAE. “I imagine it would be one of the easiest targets to harm not only the Arabs but also the Western interests”.

TEKA has built a strong network of dealers across the UAE. Within the country, the group provides its products and services without any agent or intermediate from its offices in Jebel Ali,DubaiandAbu Dhabi. These cities are “key areas of local point” for the brand, assuring it growth and sustainability. The German manufacturer’s two major distribution channels in UAE are through retailers (kitchen furniture stores), where it is the strongest brand with 163 stores counting TEKA dealers, and Channel Project, selling directly to the developers and large buildings constructors. Supermarkets are not TEKA-recipients because the products need to be mainly embedded and installed in kitchen furniture. Thus, the brand focuses on large, small, high or medium range kitchen shopping channel. Besides, Mr. Manso declares that they do not want to “position our products in large surfaces to maintain the level of the mark”.

The last two years, the business has sponsored a motorcycle racer Desert Rally Abu Dhabi. Moreover, it has its own football championship customers.

The business’ flagship in the UAE is the cooking line; among whose products are ovens, gas stoves, decorative hoods and microwaves. Mr. Manso showed me the type of decorative hoods that are leader in the Emirates. I found curious that a leading product could be a decorative hood. “It is not always about practical concerns”, stated Mr. Manso amusingly, “Emiratis are pretty demanding in this particular issue, although we as Europeans would not expect that”.

The company works with two of the three profiles of Emiratis existing in the country: Emiratis with high purchasing power and expatriated Emiratis residing in the country. The profile of a TEKA client is people with “the most basic work”, usually Indian and Asian workers in the construction.

Although the United Arab Emirates holds a good economic development, I wanted to find out in what scale the current world crisis affected this sector. The Managing Director claimed that the arrival of the crisis at the end of 2008 meant that all projects stopped automatically, in a dramatic way and within no time. “We went from riding a Ferrari 200 to run completely out of gasoline, unemployed and without money to go to the nearest gas station to get more gasoline”. As a result, mega-projects were obviously cancelled; projects in process completely stopped and, of course, no new projects could be developed. This had a bigger effect in Dubai, since Abu Dhabi has high oil revenues (95% Abu Dhabi GDP toDubai’s 6.5%). So Abu Dhabi, which was not in the world map until that moment, took over the country facing manyDubai’s pending payments and changing completely market situation in the United Arab Emirates. Before the crisis, only Dubai was considered, whereas nowadays it is a major business center together with Abu Dhabi.

An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

Last Monday 7th of May, 32 Yemenis militants were assassinated by Al Qaeda on two army posts in the south of Yemen in response to the previous murder of an Al Qaeda leader Fahd al Qasaa by US soldiers and the Yemenis Government. In the attempt of protecting the international community and civilian populations from being gravely and massively killed, military forces are contributing to the universal chain of “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth”.

Since human beings exist, we are experiencing the exercise of lethal military force against people with the same lethal force intentions. One example of this group of people are terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda, whose main aims are not understandable in terms of civic-mindedness. Producing widespread fear, embarrassing or weakening government security forces or attempting to influence government decisions, legislation or other critical decisions are without any doubt an excuse to commit such massacres or genocides –characteristic of Al Qaeda, which acts normally with a high number of victims.

The most recent happenings of the chain of disputes between military forces coming from both Yemen and the United States took place last September, when Anwar al-Awlaki, a Yemeni-US citizen linked to Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and accused for plotting abortive attacks on US targets, was killed in a drone attack. The US president Barack Obama described it as a “significant milestone”.

In April, the United Statesmilitia ended Muqbel Said al Omda’s life. Omda was the chief financial officer of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and was also accused to participate in the attack against the US warship USS Cole in 2000 –where 17 marines came to death. The financial officer formed part of a US authorities’ list of the most wanted terrorists.

Four days after it, on Sunday the 6th, another Al Qaeda leader Fahd al Qasaa was killed in a drone attack by the United States army in Al Rafd (Yemen). Al Qasaa was killed together with two of the fighter’s bodyguards when two missiles slammed near his home. Al Qasaa, also called Abu Hazifa al Yemeni, was the Al Qaeda leader in Yemen since 2009. He had already been accused for participating in the attack on USS Cole in 2000 and condemned to prison for 10 years. But one year after entering in prison, he managed to escape. Like Omda, al Qasaa was one of the most wanted terrorists in US authorities’ lists.

Last Wednesday, 2nd of May, in the first anniversary of Osama Bin Laden’s death, 13 Al Qaeda militants were killed by US soldiers during a special mission of the US army. The anti-terrorist policy adviser of the US Administration, John Brennan, defended the legality of the use of drones:
“We do not seek revenge. In fact, we use specific white attacks because they are necessary to mitigate the threat posed to prevent attacks, prevent the development of strategies and save American lives” declared Brennan.

These quarrels against terrorists have the purpose of protecting populations from being killed, which may sound totally coherent. But these continuous disputes between international military forces and terrorist organizations are beginning to become a constant chain of murders with no ethical response. We have questioned ourselves if such reciprocal attacks indeed seek to bring peace and justice. Besides, is it absolutely necessary and, certainly, ethical to kill some people in order to save other people from dying?

Our dilemma on this issue is if the responsibilities of the international community to protect civilian populations whose human rights are being gravely and massively violated actually pass the barrier of exaggeration. And if protecting human lives from terrorism has to imply the imperative use of violence in these massive clashes, which result in millions of deaths, of which the population generally does not know about. Setting priorities is a relevant concern in these cases. In our minds, giving priority to the security of the international population is without a doubt the best option. Though, we think that this has gone too far. Someone should put an end to these disputes, taking into account that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness (US Declaration of Independence 1776, Second Paragraph).

Angela Gutierrez Moreno,
Linn Andersson,
Danira Milosevic
& Jesus Alcantara Landa

Bah’ism – hopes to unite the world and religious conflicts: An interview with Hutan Hejazi Marinez

The religion Baha’i Faith emerged from a political unstable climate in Iran in the middle of the 19th century has come to reach a number of 6 million believers scattered all over the world. Yet the world seems to know little about this interesting religion. Last year, however, the book “Baha’ism: History, transfiguration, doxa.” by Hutan Hejazi Martinez was out on the market and I had the privilege to meet him and discuss this Iranian religious movement.

Andersson: How did the idea to this book start?

Hejazi Martinez: My parents are Baha’is and I used to be, but I’m not any more. I got in contact with anthropology and I left the religion because I came to value the independence that anthropology brings more. I have still a good relationship with my family and among friends despite my break out from Baha’ism. I guess they just look upon me, shrug their shoulders and wonder “how did he end up on that path?” (Laugh) I guess I’m one of those children for whom the parents had other future profession hopes than what I actually turned out as. But I figure it’s like that in more or less every family and still they love you.

Andersson: After skimming through your book I got the impression of that this religion is quite complex and nothing you get to understand over a coffee break but could you try explaining the main idea of it?

Hejazi Martinez: Well, Baha’i is a growing religion that emerged from the Islamic branch of Shiite in Persia, today’s Iran, during the Quejar dynasty, in the middle of the 19th century. The religion is constructed around so called “communities” from local levels to the “Universal House of Justice”. Every level has a government consisting of 9 democratically chosen spiritual leaders where both women and men are accepted as equal leaders as men. For the Universal house of Justice are only men are allowed, though. They have several holy Scriptures but one “The book of Law” is superior all the others. Baha’i believes in a superior power but with more focus on the personal spiritual development to something better rather than submission and penance through punishment. Nevertheless it has a lot in common with the main world religions where prophets like Jesus, Muhammad, Moses and Buddha are considered as “messengers” and other important persons like Peter, Mark and Ali are “guardians” of Baha’i Faith. This movement is kind of a mix of different grasps of other religions, which makes it fairly accepting and opened, I think. The ideology or doxa was created by the modern messenger Báb and further developed by Bahá’u’lláa. The whole religious culture were soon exiled from Iran owe to the Shah and the Shia leaders disapproval of another religious values. The early Baha’is found a sanctuary in Haifa in Israel and from there Baha’i Faith spread to Europe, America and further.

Andersson: What does Baha’i look like in Iran today?

Hejazi Martinez: The Baha’i minority in Iran is living a quite complicated life hence their connections with Haifa and Israel. The delicate matter between Israel and Iran as well as the Baha’i’s history in Iran has resulted in the Iran government preventing Baha’i students attending public education, for example. But surly it still exist Baha’i believers even though temples and Baha’i based celebrations are kept in quiet. I recently red an article about Baha’is turning to the UN for support due to the Iranian treatment of their religious minority. That shows quite clearly the Baha’is situation in their home country.

Anderson: Baha’i Faith sounds quite open-minded hence the equalization of other religion’s messengers with Báb, but since the religion sprung out from Shi’ism shouldn’t it be accepted as just a branch of Islam?

Baha'i templel New Dehli, IndiaHejazi Martinez: Baha’i was in sociological terms considered as a Shi’ite sect but has lately been accepted as an independent religion. It has its grasps from Islam, for example a type of lent reminding of Ramadan and the Iranian new year Nowruz. Nevertheless, the cycle of life and death in Baha’i Faith is a bit different to Islam. Baha’is believe in eternal life but not through reincarnation. Instead you proceed to another world after death and your spirit continues in in another world and after that another in all eternity. This gives a chance of virtual and spiritual development through each new world for each soul. So this religion has its type of love message like any of the world religions, that love and care for others is one of the main achievement one should aim for. Still Baha’i Faith has its disadvantages for example the fact that females are accepted as equal men in the spiritual sphere except in the Universal House of Justice is indeed contradictory. And as to homosexuality and promiscuity a Baha’i don’t look upon it without inconvenience. Nevertheless we’re not talking about an exclusion from the society for having another sexual orientation, these kinds of discussions are simply kept in quiet.

Andersson: So maybe Baha’ism the best solution for agnostics or people that’s still searching?

Hejazi Martinez: (Laugh) Maybe so, considering the fact that it has gained 6 million followers during its few 166 years of existence, imagine what it can achieve in the next 150 years! I actually think that this religion has a future potential to grow, in numbers, within the next 100 years. A Baha’is  reason to exist is that he wishes to unite the world, not least the religious one. To recognize other religions attributes in yours shows a fairly open minded perspective and it regains in an openness to factors that normally exclude rather than unite people such as ethnicity, religion, culture and so forth.So why not. If agnostics struggle with what to believe in but are aiming for some kind of divine answers why not Baha’i that includes a bit from all the main world religions and foremost Islam, Judaism and Christianity. That sounds like a sound conclusion.

By Linn Andersson

About the author: Hutan Hejazi Martínez is a social and cultural anthropologist. He is a Professor of Social and Economic Thought, and Advocacy Groups, currently teaching at Universidad Europea de Madrid. He was born in Iran, grew up in Spain, spent time in Check Republic and moved to the U.S at the age of 18. In 2011 Hejazi’s book, “Baha’ism: History, Transfiguration, Doxa.” was published. It is based on his research for his Ph.D. at Rice University.