Interview with a Brazilian politican

By Fiona Krogh Gerson


Lurdete Kummer, Vice-Mayor in Jandira


















Madrid –  Lurdete Kummer is a 47-year old Vice-Mayor of a small town, called Jandira, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. I wanted to interview her to get a closer look on the inside of a local government in Brazil. Since I know Mrs. Kummer personally, I was hoping to get her insight and opinion regarding the many problems and challenges Brazil is facing today, corruption amongst the political elite being one of the biggest scandals.

Mrs. Kummer has a degree in Administration, Law and Education and currently studying for a master degree in Human Rights. “You don’t really need a degree to work in the local government”, she told me during our skype interview. Adding that you can never get too much knowledge, learning new things and getting valuable experience in new fields is so stimulating and enables me to do a good job for my town and the people here.

At first I wanted to know a bit more about her position, so when I asked her what she does in her current position as Vice-Mayor in Jandira she told me she helps the Mayor in his work for the population. Her daily life is just like any other ordinary job. When I asked her about the positive and the negative sides of her job, she said that the sad thing is that they can’t really do so much. They have very little money to spend on projects compared to the big cities, and people often demanded and expected a lot from her and the local government. However, when they managed to help people, she described it as the most inspiring part of her job and the main reason why she had chosen this field of work. She didn’t want to see people with power destroying ordinary people’s lives, she wanted to make a difference. “I want to improve people’s lives”, she told me and went on explaining how there are too many people getting into politics for the reason of earning good money, and not for the sake of doing something good for their country or its people. This has to change. Because if not, we will never have the right people in power, she added.

We then got talking about the main issues in Jandira and Brazil. The main focus in Jandira right now is to improve basic education and healthcare for its citizens. The town has a massive need for improvements in these fields. With Jandira being one of the poorer cities in the state of Sao Paulo, they are facing big challenges. She mentions the lack of good healthcare being one of Brazil’s biggest challenges at the moment. There are countless people dying all over Brazil every day due to the lack of good health care provision and a shortage of hospitals. There are not enough medicines to meet the needs of Brazil’s large population. She pointed out education as a priority to tackle this problem. “Good schools and equal access to free, good education for all children is a main priority to achieve this”, she said.

When we started on the topic of corruption she got quite exasperated. When you think of all the poverty there is and corruption scandals Brazil has been exposed to over the last couple of years, it’s understandable that people lose trust in the politicians, get frustrated and riot in the streets. They have had to put up with corrupt governments for so long, and now this year even with the president getting impeached along with so many more in the government. And this is exactly how Mrs. Kummer described it. As many foreigners believe, we have seen Brazil really trying to address the problem of corruption this year, getting rid of tons of corrupt people in the government. But did it help? Mrs. Kummer tried to explain how difficult this challenge is. The corruption is not related just to individuals, it pervades the whole system. “The problem is so deeply entangled into the whole political system that nobody can really see it”, she continued. She cited corruption in business contracts as one of the biggest problems. To my question whether she could see it going on in her local government, she said yes. She felt powerless however in trying to do something about it. For instance, one can make overpriced contracts and it is within the law. It is all very well organized and hard to prove, and she described “them” as experts on what they do and how to hide it. She was not talking about one or two persons, because you have the federal police and higher forces playing a role in this corruption, too. According to Mrs. Kummer this is something everybody knows about but it continues in silence. Mrs. Kummer finds it hard to have faith in the system around her, but she believes Brazil can change. This is why she will continue to be honest in her work in the local community and be a good role model for the people she is meant to serve.

To conclude with I was very curious about how she saw Brazil’s position in the world right now, and how the corruption scandals going on this year might have damaged Brazil’s reputation internationally. Mrs. Kummer sees Brazil struggling to regain confidence in its world position today. She also thinks that Brazil is not an isolated case, that it occurs in many other developed countries all over the world, but not in such a shameful way. Brazil has great potential with its huge amount of natural resources, especially water and forest. Brazil has the potential of becoming a great power one day. Even though it has had its struggles in establishing a stable governance, it looks like the country is on the path to a better future with the events and impeachments this year being a good start. What we from the outside have witnessed is a cleansing in the governmental system, and hopefully in the future there will be only more people like Lurdete Kummer, politicians who wants to serve the needs of the people. I still hold Brazil as a “country of the future”, because I believe in people like her.






Peru – Spain relations, an insight into the Peruvian embassy in Madrid.


When I started contacting embassies a couple weeks ago for an interview, I would have never realized that I would be looking now at so many of where to choose from: Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Dominican Republican just to name a few, gave me the thumbs up right away, and in the end I decided to put on paper what I learnt about Peru regarding bilateral relations with Spain.

On Tuesday, November the 22nd I was appointed by the Counselor Minister Reynaldo Portugal at the Peruvian Embassy in Madrid. He received me with two of his colleagues, Second Secretary Willy Salazar, and Lawyer Hermes Alván.

Minister Portugal started talking about the history and values the couple of countries share in common resembling democracy, religion, laws, gastronomy, language, and economic policies just to name a few. Although the relations between both countries has had its ups and downs, he reckons it has been stable and solid once diplomatic relations were reestablished during the late 70s, the period when both exit nondemocratic regimes.

After that, the two countries have signed several bilateral treaties over the years, one Reynaldo recalls is the social security treaty, which allows Peruvians that have been working in Spain, to retire in Peru with a proportional pension.
“It ́s not a perfect treaty as it has some flaws”, he recalls, but it ́s one of the ones he says they are currently working on improving.

Second Secretary Willy Salazar ratified Reynaldo ́s position stating that Spain is currently one of the countries Peru wants to have as a strategic partner by having an open agenda on several matters. By briefly describing Peru ́s national plan for the next years, Mr. Salazar mentioned that Peru ́s goal is to open a new stage in the international ground in which Peru, wants to be an even more relevant player by trying to position itself as a regional developing power, strengthening its image worldwide by cooperating with other relevant players, and protecting its citizens abroad.
In almost all of these objectives, Spain can be seen as an integral partner as it shares in common most of the interests previously stated, Mr. Salazar said.

One of the examples the three officials share, which explain Mr. Salazar ́s posture, are the two main priorities Peru has regarding Foreign Policy. These were described by them as Peru gaining access to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) and strengthening the deal Peru currently holds concerning the Schengen zone. In both concerns, Spain can be a crucial partner that might act as a channel that might position Peru in a better place to negotiate, as well as assisting Peru in achieving its goals, they mentioned.

Reynaldo also spoke about how interested Spain had become on the Pacific Alliance, a free-trade organization Peru is part of. As Spain is the foreign country with the most

direct inversion in Peru, and the presence of Spanish companies seems to be on the rise, he says, Spain has developed an increasing awareness on wanting to gain indirect access to the Pacific Ocean, therefore finding this organization quite relevant. Willy affirms that the same way Peru considers Spain a crucial partner serving to them as a channel, this time is the other way around. As he states, Spain, which is currently an observer in this organization wants to become something more for the reasons above explained, maybe not a full member, yet something more like an observer with a vote, or in other words, “an observator +” Willy said.

Another example of cooperation between Spain and Peru as Reynaldo recalls, has been a project regarding military observatory vessels, a project recently gone un- classified. This project consisted of the construction of two vessels in Vigo, to serve the Peruvian army in observatory missions throughout the sea. Not only did we count on Spain to help us develop the vessels, he stated, but also to train our personnel into operating and managing them.

On a related matter concerning free trade organizations, when asked about the relevance of the Andean Community, they showed some difference in opinions.
They stated that Peru has always been keen to participate and cooperate with others fostering organizations of this type, and especially when the members inside are countries with whom they share the same interests, in this case, an economic one.

However, after the withdrawal of Chile first, and Venezuela second, the organization has lost part of its charm, Reynaldo mentions. Entities such as the Andean parliament have lost relevance and they are in a severe need of reform, Willy spoke. Nevertheless, is not that Peru wants to abandon, the purpose it originally intended greatly benefits our country, for example with our neighboring country Ecuador in which some of our industries take great advantage of it, Willy and Reynaldo remarked. As Peru has been advancing in terms of new trade bilateral agreements with other countries, the Andean Community is kept now to a secondary role. “Just take a look at the figures” Reynaldo continued, 16% of our trade is with the E.U., 22% is with China, and the U.S. occupies the largest percentage, whereas within the Andean Community the records are kept as low as 7 %; it is still relevant but definitely not a priority.

Moving on with the interview, I decided to conclude by asking what kind of image Peru was trying to portray to the world. Reynaldo mentioned that the Peruvians have seen Spain as a role model in terms of world tourism leaders and that they were trying to extrapolate that in order for Peru to be a more attractive country to visit. Furthermore, he explained that Peru also wanted to be an example to follow and seek advice for, as he believes they already have the knowledge and the experience so they can share it with others. He continues by saying Peru now has succeeded in the development stage and that they feel now confident enough to give solid advice to its counterparts around the globe if they request them to do so. Last but not least, other features he ́d like to emphasize is their political stability and their values of democracy previously mentioned as a part of the Peru brand.

My personal impression of the time I ́ve spent in the Embassy couldn’t ́t be better. I learned a lot of things not only regarding the relations between both of the Hispanic countries, but getting to analyze the profiles of each of the interviewees and comparing them with other diplomats interviewed so far in terms of background and experience, was in overall an excellent enriching experience.


Pedro V. Esteban Orellana

Maduro impeachment: Coup d’état or will of the people?

Venezuela’s opposition’s attempt at ousting President Maduro from office by gathering signatures for a petition, has been temporarily halted after National Electoral Council casts doubts on the authenticity of signatures.


People protesting against Maduro’s Government.                                                                          Source: Reuters.


Venezuela, the oil-richest country in the world, is once again experiencing political and social turmoil in the awake of the recent economic meltdown. President Maduro has long blamed Western sanctions, particularly by the United States, for the poor economic shape of Venezuela, however, the opposition claims that Maduro’s nationalistic policies have created the financial vacuum and consequently the opposition is pushing for a change in government.

According to Venezuela’s constitution, a plebiscite can be held once a president has served half of his term if certain requirements are met. By October 21st the opposition had successfully initiated the process of issuing a recall referendum by having one percent of voters in each of Venezuela’s 24 states signing a petition. Now the opposition is required to collect signatures from 20 percent of voters in each state to favorably trigger the referendum. The government-controlled National Electoral Council has, however, disdained the result of the first petition on the grounds of alleged electoral fraud.


Screen Shot 2016-10-28 at 13.22.01.png

Path to Referendum vote on Maduro’s presidency.                                     Source: BBC World


The invalidation of the petition by the National Electoral Council was received with hostility by the opposition, which has long accused the agency of having a Government-friendly approach to issues that ought to be independently assessed. Henrique Capriles, leader of the opposition, has expressed particular concern regarding the lack of separation between the state institutions and the government in office; “A coup d’état has taken place in Venezuela, it cannot be classified otherwise. It’s time to defend our Constitution. We need to re-establish Constitutional order.”



Henrique Capriles at a press conference in the state of Miranda.                     Source: ImpactoNY


President Maduro continuously insists the evaluation of the petition signatures was conducted by independent judges, electoral officials and experts based on technical criteria. He denies having had any influence on the decision to invalidate the petition. Maduro made no secret of his cynical take on the opposition’s attempt at removing him from power: “The revolution will continue to win despite the constant pretensions of the right which is trying to take over power by unconstitutional means” he said while in Saudi Arabia discussing global oil prices.  Members of the Maduro’s Venezuelan Socialist Party, such as Earle Herrera, Deputy of the Council of State, have issued similar statements; “Don’t try to take advantage of these hard times to finish off our nation”



Opposition congressman accusing President Maduro of being a                                              dictator                                                Source: Latin American Post.


While the legal stand-off between the government and the opposition is expected to continue in the coming months, the Venezuelan economy, suffering from a staggering 700% inflation rate, is expected to worsen. The electorate is not taking kindly on the government’s lack of action, with recent opinion polls suggesting that 80 percent of Venezuelans would sign the petition to remove Maduro from office. Henrique Capriles remains optimistic about the prospects of having popular opinion behind him:  “They are the 20%! We are the great majority, the 80%! We are millions and we are going to make them feel it!” he wrote on Twitter.

Video related article

Source: The Daily Conversation

Written by: Fiona Catherine Krogh Gerson, Cassandra Bakketeig Thomassen,  Isadora Clough, Sebastían Berko and Pedro Esteban.


Hurricane Matthew struck Haiti on October 4th causing substantial amounts of deaths, displacements and an intensified risk of a cholera outbreak.


Areas of Jeremie, Haiti; destroyed by Hurricane Matthew, photographed on October 8th, 2016. Source: The Atlantic


The category four hurricane, Mathew, hit southwestern Haitian shores on Tuesday 4th around 5 PM forcing many to abandon their homes and families in seek of shelter and increasing the risk of a cholera outbreak. A continued lack of funds to rebuild water infrastructure and hospitals further jeopardizes the Haitian people.



Source: Civil Protection Directorate. Retweeted by @USEmbassyHaiti


Cholera has been prominent in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake as a result of poor water quality. Many have long feared a cholera outbreak in the area and experts say hurricane Matthew may bring this scenario closer to reoccurring. David Nabarro, Medical Doctor and Special Advisor to the UN Secretary-General, has expressed particular concern that inaccessible areas are making it difficult to evaluate the full scale of the outbreak; “We don’t know if there are many people with the problem of cholera in the areas that we cannot access and that is why I ask the people, let us access everywhere” he told Reuters.



Haiti’s first outbreak of cholera in more than 100 years was announced by the Ministry of Public Health on October 19th, 2010, a mere 10 months after the disastrous 2010 earthquake. With more than 450.000 affected and over 6000 deaths, the Haitian government swiftly recognized the need for foreign aid. Despite efforts made by the local government and the international community to contain and eliminate cholera from the Hispaniola Island, the measures were of limited avail. By the time Matthew struck, many houses had yet to be reconstructed, many remained unchecked for cholera and clean water supplies were still to be installed in many parts of the country.

In an official statement, the Elysse set forth the essential steps towards de-escalating the cholera situation; “the most urgent thing is now to furnish drinking water to the population and prevent sanitary risks” emphasizing the urgent need for medical personnel. France sent 60 civil security experts and through the French department of Doctors Without Borders another 26 medical doctors. However, as Nabarro points out, on the 18th of October, two weeks after the hurricane came ashore, UN had received just 15 million USD out of a total of 120 million USD requested; “it is difficult to have a good UN response if we don’t have enough money” he said disappointedly.

Humanitarian non-governmental organizations, such as the Red Cross and CARE, have come together to provide basic needs for the impoverished population, considered to be the poorest in the western hemisphere. An ongoing lack of organization and uneven distribution of aid has resulted in general civil unrest. On Tuesday 18th a Dutch Military ship carrying 35 tons of food, hygiene kits, and medical supplies had to abort its mission by leaving the Haitian Port of Jeremie due to chaotic circumstances; “This terrible drama reminds us again of the extent of the humanitarian challenges facing Haiti and its population” said Alexis Lamek, French Representative for the UN.


Video related article:

Source: CBS News.

Written by: Fiona Catherine Krogh Gerson, Cassandra Bakketeig Thomassen,  Isadora Clough, Sebastían Berko and Pedro Esteban.

An Interview with Irina Feldman

My name is Pablo Llamas Aparicio and I am a first-year student of Translation at the UEM. On June 9, 2016, I had the privilege of interviewing Professor Irina Feldman, who teaches Spanish language and Latin American literature at Middlebury College, in Vermont, United States. I thought it could be interesting to know the opinion of someone who lives in a state that usually remains unnoticed for Europeans in comparison to some of the states where we get the idea that everything seems to happen. On top of that, being born in St. Petersburg, Russia, Ms. Feldman’s own intercultural experience only added spice to this amazing interview.

First, it seemed a good idea to me that Ms. Feldman introduced herself to my readers. She told me that she had moved to the U.S. when she was fifteen years old, short after the U.S.S.R. had dissolved, because her mother –a single mother- was not sure of whether it would be possible for them to live safely in Russia during the transition. After a period of time during which she was not precisely infatuated with the States, Ms. Feldman took her high education in Georgetown, Washington D.C. and graduated in Hispanic literature. After living a couple of years in South America, she got a job in Middlebury College. She explained me that her research focuses on left-winged movements in South America, as well as the authors of those movements, especially in the Andean area (Bolivia, Peru…).

My next question to her was about the origin of her interest on Hispanic literature, given that she was born in Russia and works in the United States. She confessed me that one major factor was the fact that she did not really like the English language when she moved to the U.S. or the country itself, for that matter. She also told me that she had had wonderful Spanish teachers when she was in high school and later at college. She had had really positive experiences with teachers and professors from Spain, so she started studying Peninsularists, that is studies on the Iberian Peninsula, and she was highly interested on Medieval Spain. However, once she got in contact with studies on Latin America, she finally made up her mind and started focusing her studies on Latin America.

Wanting to know more details about what made her like the Hispanic literature so much, I asked her whether Hispanic literature had traditionally had a big impact on the Russian culture, as well as the American. To that question, she answered that actually, it had a great impact on the Soviet culture, when she was young. In that time, the classics from the Golden Age of the Spanish literature, like Cervantes or Lope de Vega, were indeed very famous in Russia. She told me that her first contact with the Spanish literature came when she was young and lived in Russia. She would read all these classics that are so important for the history of Spanish culture and literature. She also told me about a Russian-made movie of El Quijote, saying that it was “a very impressive movie.” As for Latin American literature, she answered that both in Russia and the U.S. it was famous for “the Boom” of authors like Gabriel García Márquez or Mario Vargas Llosa. However, she expressed her disappointment on the newer generations of students in the U.S. due to their little knowledge on Hispanic literature, even in the case of her own students at the very beginning of their degrees.

Next, I thought it was time we spoke about current affairs. Laughing, Ms. Feldman said that she could already guess what I was going to ask her (and she happened to be right). First, given that only two days before, Hillary Clinton had become the first woman to be an official candidate to the U.S. presidential elections, I asked Ms. Feldman why she thought Clinton received so much supporting from the U.S. citizens. She explained that Vermont is a state that traditionally votes as much to the left as it can. So then, she asks, why does Hillary Clinton receive so much supporting? In her opinion, Hillary’s popularity has been supported by her relation with former president Bill Clinton. She thinks that Hillary’s stand on immigration is not progressive, but she receives so much supporting because people think of Hillary as a professional who knows what she is doing. However, according to Ms. Feldman, Hillary’s presidency would not mean the revolutionary change that a lot of people seem to ask for.

When asked about Donald Trump, she answered that it was completely the other way round: people think of Trump as an anti-establishment candidate. From what she told me, a lot of people seem to believe that because Trump is so rich, he will not accept bribes. People, Ms. Feldman says, are sick of the system, they think that the government does not represent the people, they think that the state is corrupted by the big money, and want someone who can change the game. She, however, thinks that these people are wrong. She can’t see the logic behind the bribes argument, and sees Trump as the main example of the decay of the political system in the U.S.

Republic of Colombia, between FARC and a countrie




   Loeb, S. (2016) The peace process between Farc and Colombia. Retrivied from: 


The Republic of Colombia is located in the northwestern region of South America, is comprised of a unitary, social and democratic state and has a presidential government, whose current president is Juan Manuel Santos, in turn President Santos enters into new talks peace between the Government of Colombia and armed groups ( “Guerrillas”) in Havana (Cuba), initiated in the early years of former president Andres Pastrana Arango since 1998, meetings between both sides already passed a first test in meetings Oslo (Norway) and now for the second time in Havana (Cuba).
On 27 May 1964 the government of Colombia launched a military operation to conquer a zone of communist influence in the central west of the country. Manuel Marulanda Velez and 47 other men, fled and fought creating the tenth world’s most dangerous terrorist group of guerrilla character self-proclaimed Marxist-lenista operating in Colombia and in the border area with Venezuela, better known as the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces from Colombia).
There are many rumors that the armed group FARC, was giving space for dialogue because of their lack of resources as weapons, medical supplies and etc. not having as get the new measures to combat drug trafficking in Colombia often linked to the guerrillas that group. The government of Juan Manuel Santos remains steadfast against the threat of the armed group and does not rule out further attacks while peace meetings continue.
The reasons are still fighting for peace in Colombia, they are directly related to the 50 years that meets the FARC group, known by many as “Fifty years on fear of FARC” years of murder, kidnapping, robbery, businesses and illicit smuggling, all obviously denied by the leaders of the armed movement. The peace talks in Cuba will not take into account the crimes of the past five decades, since according to the organizers of this important event, it is important to spend every chapter at a time, but will participate in these meetings last May 13, members and victims of group. Negotiations are at a slow pace but optimistic, President Juan Manuel Santos is flexible and gives some requests to one of the leaders of the FARC (Timoleon Jimenez), the population of Colombia does not have direct access to treaties until they finish. The armed group as data grows every year and fear of a significant surge makes peace agreements as quickly as possible be resolved:


Table 1: The FARC’s Growth from 1986 to 1995
Year Number of fronts Number of members
1986 32 3,600
1995 60 7,000

n.d.a., Growth in FARC .Retrivead from :


We know about Colombia?
Through an interview with the Minister Plenipotentiary (Juan Manuel Uribe Robledo) of Colombia in Spain, performed by students of the Universidad Europea de Madrid can consist with legitimate information echo that the problem in Colombia as it would in any other State, he goes there in fighting a country against a specific group, geographical and historical issues Moldan present of Colombia, and the main problem we have to popular dissatisfaction according to the Minister, does not advance for results while the the State- “five years is too much for one life, five years for the state, few steps” -Colombia is among the 6 most unequal countries in Latin America and has one of the strongest industries, despite that, has problems such as the fight against unwanted traffic and mobility within its borders is inevitable.
According to UNHCR (The UN agency refugee) in Colombia more than 330,000 Colombians have fled the country because of the last 50 years of internal conflict, seeking asylum, and many to not get it, do not continue to seek alternatives offered by the government, in many cases they join armed groups creating a vicious circle difficult to solve, where a problem does another major problem.
Colombia has more than 5% of its population in slums or indigenous tribes in the Amazon, once again with the geographical factor influencing in many cases vulnerable to ideologies of different control groups people.

It is important to remember that there are many factors that compromise a country to act on behalf of their interests, armed groups in Colombia do not fight for the interests of Colombia, fighting for proprios and unfairly with Colombian interests, is a country suffering terror and every minute of dialogue is divided a little more, Juan Manuel Santos is one of the major international players in the fight against terrorism in America, and their attitudes against armed groups in Colombia, obtained the power to give the country.
There are different views in the country, some speak eradicate the FARC and other justice, but together, always speak of the duty to protect the peace, human rights protect the idea of the rights to life, between the sword and the wall ahead of us the future of Colombia?


Rodrigues, Madeleine (2016) fotograhp , Colombian Embassy

Interview to Ivonne Bianchi


Ivonne Bianchi is a Venezolan who has worked in the national bank of Venezuela, and currenltly is working for Group Atapahualpa as Financial Advisor, the main contractor of the Venezuelan Governement. The company, one of the biggest on the country, has been critisized for getting a lot of contracts, producing the controversial “morralas of Chavez” (bags with the face of Chavez), or even being the instrument through wich spanish party “Podemos” would have received money from Venezolan Government.

“I met the owner of the company in the previous work ; It was my client when I held the position of Manager of International Finance in a national bank , when I finish my employment relationship asked me to work in this company.”

Patricia: How long have you worked for Atahualpa Group?

Ivonne: I have been working in the company Atahualpa Group for two years now

P: What is your position in the company ?

I.: I work as a financial advisor to prepare investment projects either creating a new business, expansion of facilities of one of our factories, launching a new product, etc. , led in most cases to apply for funding in banks or decision of the Board of the company.

P. How did you reach that position ?

I: I met the owner of the company in the previous work ; It was my client when I held the position of Manager of International Finance in a national bank , when I finish my employment relationship he asked me to work in this company.

P: Related to social responsibility, could you cite some examples of activities carried out by the company?

I: Atapahualpa Group has developed many activities regarding social responsability in very different areas. For example Talks of Information and Guidance on the beneficiary population were made about issues like the problem of domestic violence, violence against women, drugs, and conflict with children and adolescents, legal and socio-political orientation: a discussion on alternative means for dispute resolution was made. This activity included all those staff benefited from the project.
Another one would be workshops such as the workshop on self-esteem and Personal growth.

P: What product line is the most successful? Who is the client?

I: Currently The textile sector is the strong one of our company, especially in the manufacture of uniforms, school bags and backpacks.
Our customers are mostly state companies such as National bank (Banco de Venezuela, Banco Bicentenario, the Treasury, Ministry of Education, governors, and private clients.

P: Atapahualpa is a private company , an important contractor criticized sometimes for hogging most of Contracts , supposedly without need to submit to public competition procedure required by law. It is really that way ?

I: It is true that Atapahualpa gets the most of governmental concessions , this is due to the fact that our Company operates properly and offers competitive prices and services . Furthermore it is not true that it always gesta ll the concessions,. As an example of It is worth to remember September 2012, our offer for “supply of office supplies and stationery ” presented by the Contractor was rejected by the Government.

P: Atahualpa Group is a main contractor for the Venezuelan Government. Do you think a possible recall referendum against the Government would affect the Company? why?

I: We are a big company which has developed in different economic sectors. In case of an output of the current government, it is clear that the company would be short-term affected because most of our clients are from the public sector, however by its diversification in their products and services would keep us in business.

P: Related to your previous experience in the public banc, in which entity did you work?

I: I worked for the Treasury Bank of Venezuela.

P: Is the banking sector stable in your country?

I: Well, as in the rest of the world, it is not hundred per cent foreseable. Since 1996, after a huge crisis, it seems to have improved. The Bank Superintendency ensures the stability of this sector, mainly dominated for the private banking. Nonetheless, the Venezuelan banking system is not stable as it is currently facing risks both for assets and for liabilities. The recession and high levels of inflation play against revenue and profitability of the system .

P: Although the Venezuelan National Bank with greater capital is state-owned, (Bank of Venezuela), social capital as a whole is in the vast majority distributed in private entities . In your view, what could be the reason?

I: The Banks play different roles. A lot of people distribute money between national and private entities. But, the reason could mainly be the confidence that comes from private entities, since they are mostly bearings profitability of your business, public entities instead its main objective is to benefit society, which makes them riskier .

P: When the government returned to nationalize Banco de Venezuela , which had been before acquired by Banco Santander , revenues grew enormously. Do you believe, in general, that Venezuelan people are reticent to foreign Banks?

I: I do not consider the Venezuelan people to be  reticent to foreign banks , what happened was that by becoming a public bank profits are directed to society , sacrificing profitability to subsidize special financing plans to underserved areas , rate subsidies interest , increased levels of banking , among others. In addition, the national government ordered public institutions to transfer their fund private banks to state banks, which allowed their incomes grow enormously.

Thank you Ivonne, for your time and for giving us a closer perspective of Venezuela´s situation.


Interviewer: Patricia García Blázquez