Wall or failure?

Interview to Pablo Raphael de la Madrid, 3/06/2017.

I’ve decided to interview Pablo Raphael de la Madrid, the new cultural Advisor of the Embassy of Mexico in Spain. He is officially the presence of Mexican essayist and writer as well as it is also the new Director of the Institute of Mexico in Spain. Since a few days ago is now shipping in their offices just in front of the Congress of deputies in Madrid.

We talked about the racist feeling that Donald Trump has highlighted in America: “Honestly. An antimexican feeling in the United States, either did not exist before, or we didn’t face it before. Now is acceptable to be openly antimexican: Mexicans are rapists, drug dealers, murderers, the “bad men” come from Mexico. This feeling is obviously not the majority, but is widespread. more than 60 million of Americans voted to Donald Trump”.

In addition, we talked about the effect of the wall after his construction. What about the consequences ? “After the construction of the wall, the result will be more economic than social. The main country which is continuously negotiating with is the United States, and this has been so since 1980. Millions of dollars daily cross the border between the two countries (but according to Trump the NAFTA is the worst U.S. economic agreement that has done in its history). The migrants will continue crossing the border illegally, the traffic of drugs will not be a problem, is easy to find other export system when one can win million euros with the sale of drugs”.

We have begun to talk about the Trump´s opinion. He told that Trump is a man with a very nationalistic view in politics. Trump is not a man with an ultraliberal international orientation that seeks a global cooperation at economic level through different international institutions. Trump wants to personally manage everything that has to do with the United States, meet bilaterally with all international actors. This type of populism exists also in Europe such in France, Holland, Poland… We talked about another important issue: What could make Peña Nieto to maintain the relationship with the United States? That choose: interest economic or honor of Mexico? Pablo told that Peña Nieto has been continually struggling to find common ground with the United States and be able to relax the political situation. The problem is that Trump does not follow the current and that he does whatever it takes to support their arguments.

Grandson wants to show to Trump that Mexico is a place of opportunities at the  economical, social and political level, and not an epicenter of crime, drugs and violation of the law. Pablo said that  “Peña Nieto never will accept anything against mexican´s dignity”. It is difficult to imagine that Mexico ever accept what would be seen as a humiliating and politically poisonous gesture for any ruler of that nation: turn a check to United States to Trump finances a work that Mexicans interpreted as a slap in the face against them. Pablo insisted on the consequences of the wall, seeing both concern for the environment (a very internationalized and currently very important topic). The wall simply would influence on the ecosystem, causing envalses of water for example. This, according to Pablo, should be an argument on the part of the international society to defend the non-construction of the wall.

The problem is that we are talking about the first world power and no argument is sufficient to convence. In addition, not only “Trump does not respect the environment with the construction of the wall, but it also recently decided to get out of the Treaty on the environment of Paris” according to Pablo.

Finally, Pablo told me that anyway, Trump can’t do everything you want. United States is a country that has spent 150 years as a democracy, is a country that has never had a dictator or any type of character with absolute power. All this thanks to its elaborate political system that is auto compensates and will re balances. In the USA you can vote against the laws of your own party, i.e., a democracy; in Spain for example without your vote against your party are at risk that you throw out. All of this makes that Trump can´t do all of he wants and make some limits to his power.

NICOLAS DALMAU, North America.

Interview with Luis Videgaray Caso, secretary of Mexico’s foreign relations.

 

(ricardomejia.mx/Luis-Videgaray-Caso.jpg)

In this project, I’ve decided to interview Luis Videgaray Caso. He is the secretary of Mexico’s foreign relations since 2017, before this position, He was a politician as a member of the Institutional Revolutionary party of his country. For that reason, I thought that He could answer my questions with criterion about the actual situation in North America, especially in Mexico and the United States. Among all my questions, the main topic was about Trump and his relationship with Mexico and the Mexicans, and how that relationship could affect Mexico’s economy in one way or another. Not just their economy, also their future as a country.

Luis Videgaray, firstable said that said that the economy in Mexico has obviously fallen down since Donald Trump got into the presidency of the United States because of his new policies, which go directly against Latin American countries and that are protectionist. This basically means that He wants a total isolation, Trump does not want to belong or be a part of something bigger (some institution) that makes this world, our world, more globalized. That is why He is against the European Union for example. He had always been in favor and supporting the Brexit in this case.

Well, going back to the Mexican economy, I have underlined these words of Luis V.: “The protectionist threats of the new American president will decrease the PIB (Producto lnterno Bruto) of the country into a 1% by 2017”. He also gave some examples of why this isolation policy will affect Mexico: “I want to let you know that the most part of Mexico’s exports go to the U.S., and at list 5 million of jobs depend on the trade with Mexico. But the most shocking fact is that before Donald Trump was selected the president, both countries, U.S. and Mexico, used to trade more than $1.4 billion in goods each day”.

With his words, We assume that Mexico’s economy, and not just their economy, also the most part of Latin American countries, has fallen and decreased with intensity since the new mandate in the White House.

Now that We have talked about Donald Trump’s isolation policy, I would like to share some of the words that Luis Videgaray gave me about the construction of the wall, one of the most protectionist ideas of Trump. Luis Videgaray seemed very convinced on that the wall would never be built because in United States, as He said, the balance of power between the president and the senate with its different cameras is very strong, so that law of constructing the wall would never pass the approval of the senate in his own opinion.

Luis Videgaray Caso also indicated that the own idea of building it is crazy and has a lack of common sense because the wall between Mexico and U.S.A. would put thousands of lives in danger, it would not be efficient against the Drug trafficking and it would also damage the environment for reasons that I’m not going to name right now.

As We see here, Luis V. has exposed his ideas and answers very clearly by supporting them with data and facts that everyone can find on the Internet, but lets see now what his future perspective of the situation and his description of Trump’s first 100 days is.

According to the president’s first 100 days, the interviewed added that these 100 days are not enough time to evaluate what He had done and what He will do in the near future. In his opinion, Trump has screwed up in some decisions like: firing the director of the FBI James Comey, cutting economical aid to not developed countries, trying to switch the Obamacare, etc… But as He said before, this does not mean that He will not accomplish merits or good actions that will create a better atmosphere around his administration. He also added that these first 100 days made evidence on that Trump had not political experience and that this was a sample of that. But hopefully, Luis Videgaray said that things will change and that these past errors from Trump will turn into at list better decisions.

To finish up with my interview, I’ve asked him about his future perspective of the situation in North America. He didn’t want to be overwhelming with his thoughts, but his inner voice tells him than Trump will be destitute soon or later but before his 4 years of presidency for sure. His arguments were that the republican is unpredictable and uncontrollable, and that is something that is not liked by the republicans in the congress. Luis V. says that republicans are nervous about that and also adds that none of them really knows what kind of policies Trump supports. He said: “They (the republicans) would rather see the predictable, christian and conservative Mike Pence, Trump’s vice president, as the new president”.

 Isidro González Vázquez

 

The current status of Mexico around the world.

 

(http://puntodincontro.mx/articoli2015/attualita01122015-2-sp.htm)

This interview was held on June 5, 2017, in which we made a telephone appointment with Miguel Ruiz Cabañas Izquierdo, who is in charge of: Undersecretary of Multilateral Affairs and Human Rights at the Mexican Embassy. This telephone interview was based on a series of questions of the current Mexican and around the current situation and problems within North America, since it is the sector of countries that we have been working during the quarter in the subject of Observatory.

Firstly, the first question that he decides to make to the Undersecretary of Multilateral Affairs and Human Rights of the Embassy of Mexico on the possible construction of the wall and what may affect Mexican society. The first question was already “complicated”, since the main theme of the question, the wall, is something even as the interviewee, is something that is not yet real and something very complicated for Mexico. The interviewee, whose main position is the relations of his country with the United States and Canada, shows his disagreement with the possible construction of the wall. He believes that it is something that will affect both countries in the economic sphere, since it does not count every day, millions of transport movements are carried out between both countries and this wall makes it very difficult to enter and exit in each one of them, for What Mr. Cabañas Izquierdo, believes that this wall alone would bring conflicts and a “rupture” of ties between both countries. He believes that it is not a good decision of Donald Trump, with which he is not very conformable with his form of politics, and hopes that he does not take a corporal for the good of the Mexican citizens and also, of the American citizens.

In the second place, the most complicated question on the subject of the wall. A simple and direct question to the quality of the interviewee knew me to answer with certainty and security. The question was based on what was created and built this wall in a short or long term. Mr. Cabañas Izquierdo answered with the clarity that the construction of this wall was going to be very complicated and not as early as with the always “direct” Donald Trump, since the plan that has, the interviewee tells us, is that this wall Sea Funded by the Mexican citizens themselves and is something like the Mexican citizens and not even the president of the country, Enrique Peña Nieto, shares; In fact, the interviewee comments on a series of disagreements that have been seen between the two presidents. The interviewee ends this block of questions with a statement that calls into question the theme of the wall: “We will see what happens to the wall and with the insistence of Donald Trump.” This statement, we show that today it is difficult to know if it really is something that will be fulfilled since it has many people and much of the American society that is not in favor of this increase.

In the last place, I asked a series of questions about the state of Mexico as a country and with Enrique Peña Nieto at the front. In the first place, Mr. Cabañas Izquierdo, tells us that at present, with one of his last years (such as the increase in the price of gasoline in the country), led the royal president to find himself in a more complicated situation, Arriving To catalog a society divided around the thinking about the Mexican president. The interviewee, on the other hand, has succeeded with the presidency of Enrique Peña Nieto, reaching a reduction in large numbers of the unemployed in the country, the concept that has faced a growth of poverty and inequality inside Mexico, which has made the society of the country is in the situation, a normal circumstance, stresses the interviewee.

To conclude, the interviewee shows great expectations of the future for Mexico as a country, knowing that it will be a complicated road both inside and outside its borders.We are faced with a complicated future but always eager to face it, to continue to grow as a country and to promote an improvement in society and society.

Very grateful for being able to “steal” you for a few minutes in order to get to know Mexico and its current situation. A pleasure to be able to access a country with a lot of road and the caliber of Mexico, a very important country within America and the world itself. A country which has many open fronts and hopefully, can solve or liby in the best way possible for the country and its citizens.

A country with great expectations of the future and with an uncertain future around the presidency. What will purify the future with United States?

 

Interview with D. Manuel María Lejarreta Lobo, current Secretary General of the Institution Consejo España-EE.UU.

MR. LEJARRETA

(Source: Transdoc )

Last May 22th I had the honour of interviewing Mr. Lejarreta, the current Secretary General of the Institution Consejo España-EE.UU. I began the interview asking about President Trump and the events that have influenced his election, as well as, commenting if the presidency might be too big for him.

Mr. Lejarreta answered saying that there are two main factors that could explain his victory. The first one is that many people from deep rural America have not benefited from the latest US governments and globalization has hurt them. They have wanted to give a mandate of disruptive power with a new president from a non-traditional political class who has a different mentality.

On the other hand, Hillary Clinton was a worn out candidate. “A lady who was already very damaged by the establishment” he said. Trump was a hope for those Americans who felt abandoned.

Other factors, like the rise of nationalism, as it is currently happening in Europe with Brexit or the fear of terrorist attacks, have determined his victory. One third of the crimes committed in the United States are by illegal immigrants, a very negative figure against immigration. A speech against immigration or in favour of highly controlled immigration is always welcomed by voters. Trump has exaggerated a lot on the terrorist issue. For Lejarreta, Trump’s messages are simple, populist and very basic, convincing large masses to vote him. Many of his promises made Trump win many followers.

On the question of whether Trump is prepared to be president, the secretary arguments that his profile is effectively not the most suitable to lead the United States seen so far, but the important part is the result.

Mr Manuel gave me an example in the economic area. The American stock market is increasing and the US economy goes quite well which means there is some confidence in Trump’s economic factors. Also many companies have reacted well in his protectionist proposals.

In addition, although the United States has a presidential system in which the president commands, there are some state control devices to help moderate. In that sense, although the work of the president is very important, not all foreign and domestic politics of the country are directed by him. In principle at the intellectual level, he has enough potential. We have to see his personal impulses and his way of leading companies. Being president is something very difficult but Mr Lejarreta puts his trust in Trump and in the possibility that he could be a successful president.

Then, we talked about some of Trump’s promises. We touched on the theme of his desire for the country to leave the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).

Mr. Lejarreta remarked that Trump is a protectionist and prefers bilateral agreements than multilaterals. He prefers negotiating directly with a country, face to face. The secretary added that we used to have multilateralism with Obama and, under his point of view, he prefers this system.

Regarding the US’ influence in the Asia-Pacific region, Mr Lejarreta completely agrees that the United States will not lose power in the area, because in his opinion, the Asia-Pacific region is the most important region for the United States and will continue to be.

He explained that the US has plans to make his fleet more present and has begun to establish trade agreements with Japan and South Korea. Consequently, he was sure that leaving the TPP will not entail a withdrawal from the area.

Of course, for China, it is very helpful that the agreement does not enter into force because apart from commercial, it also implied a regional political agreement of the countries and the less presence of the United States in the area, the more benefits China.

Once we talked about Trump’s relations with Asia, we started talking about relations with Europe, as well as talking about the relationship with Spain.

As with Asia, Mr. Lejarreta stated that relations with Europe would follow the same bilateral system. Trump does not want to negotiate with the European Union, but with countries separately.

Perhaps, Trump is not interested in negotiating with the EU, but the secretary thinks that Trump knows the transatlantic relationship is fundamental. He do not think it will even lower the level of relations in the military, security, defence … it may be a major change in the way of negotiating bilateral agreements, but it is difficult because the EU made a compromise in a community agreement and it will not be easy to negotiate separately.

Focusing on Spain, Mr. Lejarreta remarked that we are bound to be the little one and have good relations with the big one. Spain have to get along with the American government and its president, whoever.

Obviously, for Spain it would have been much easier with Hillary Clinton as President. First, because she has come to Spain many times, and secondly because her vice president, Tim Kaine, who is a friend of Spain, precisely presides over the forum Spain- U.S.A. of which the foundation Consejo España-EE.UU. is part. Spain has had to start from scratch with the new republican administration.

Spain is a good partner for the States. In terms of security, the bases of Rota and Morón are essential for security in the Mediterranean and as a platform for deployment in Africa and the Middle East, therefore we have very important elements that make the United States interested to get along with Spain.

As with all other countries, Mr. Lejarreta summarised that Spain cannot accept everything because we have our principles and we are part of the EU. But he thinks the relations do not have to be bad, much less, and of course our government will strive to get along. Only time could show the future actions of Trump and its movements in the international order.

                                                                                                       Laura Cañibano Ponce de León

What Trump has been so far

In this article, we are going to see a brief general overview of the 45th President of The United States, Donald trump, given by the hand of Dori Toribio. She is a US correspondent working for media programmes, like Noticias Cuatro and Informativos Telecinco. We are going to review his main problems and what has been so far on their most mediatic neighbour, Mexico.

dori toribio
Dori Toribio’s work consists on covering the information given by foreign countries or regions wherethey have been sent. They are the eyes and ears of their viewers and readers. They have to put in context the information given, making it easier to comprehend for anyone, which makes them much more present in the news rather than the national chronicle.

Since he got in his presidency, Donald Trump has gathered a great part of the media on any device or any country. With few time in the power, he has made sure that most US news revolt around him and hasn’t left anyone indifferent. But there is a list of problems in his administration. “Trump’s administration has lots of problems. For various reasons, like the fact that they haven’t been in the power a 100 days and the start for any administration is hard. But right now the biggest problem without a doubt is that there is a lot of credibility issues regarding the president.” Said Dori Toribio. “Since he got into power, he has made a series of consecutive statements (or tweets) that has been found inaccurate or directly false, which sums up to his polemic talks as a presidential candidate.”

His political un-correctness and his bold statements have made him one of the most disapproved presidents. “This credibility issues supposes big problems, in the time where he should be enjoying his “Presidential honeymoon”. But at this moment his approval index is around 37%, one of the lowest of the history.”

Nevertheless his mediatic storm has made some different views with different points over the last months. “There is a divided vision about it.” argues Dori. “Trump’s followers are satisfied with the confrontation of the president with the media, whose credibility plummeted in the country. But the president of the United States has declared war to the media since his first week in the White house. And that creates an unusual dynamic in Washington in a brand-new Administration.” Trump’s has been restless from taking out the credibility of the media. “The media has been called “fake news” almost daily and has been declared “The enemy of the people”, and this language has been for us extremely worrying, because it makes you remember historic movements or leaderships that has not been very democratic.”

Despite his approval rate and his war on the media, Trump general opinion is diverse, mainly because he is trying to stick to his promises on the electoral campaign. “This is a really big country where there is millions of people and the opinion is not unanimous. Trump won the elections with more than 62 millions of votes and a great part of their voters are still happy with their president because they consider that he is succeeding the promises established in the campaign which made them vote him.” Says Dori. “But there is millions of voters who did not bet for him, and according to the popular vote the majority. And it’s usual to hear critics and concern about him or even fear between some Americans due to the situation that he is generating or the future that the United States can confront with Trump in the White House. It’s a president with few precedents in the history, probably the only thing that anyone can agree in this moment.” The social division has notably increased since he got in charge, with various rallies against him, appealing to not make him president.”

His biggest promise in his campaign was that he was going to “build a great great wall” between Mexico and the US, but as we have seen, there has been little movement in the administration. According to Dori, there has been very little details about the foreign policy of the Administration regarding Mexico. “There has been lots of accusations and words, but right now anything has turned into the practice. We will have to see exactly what Trump is planning to do in the economic and commercial terrain, apart from knowing if he is going to be able to build his desired wall, for budget problems.” “The only thing that has been a reality is the change in the migratory policies and deportations and pitifully, it affects millions of Mexicans in the US, apart from other communities.

From the war on the media, to his harsh declarations on foreign neighbours like Mexico, I think that Trump’s future is saving for something even bigger, but apart from that, we will have to wait and see what he is planning, either for the good or the worse of the country.

GREENPEACE vs. TOXIC POLICIES & LEADERS

donald trump tweet global warming

In an interview, the Campaigns Manager of Greenpeace Spain argues how Trump’s administration represents a threat to the progress that has been made in terms of gender and ethnic equality, and for sure: global warming. 

“Because environment is not isolated”

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María José Caballero,  Campaigns Manager of GP SPAIN and volunteer.

 

Maria José Caballero, Campaigns Manager of Greenpeace Spain has been almost 10 years working in this great NGO. Graduated as a biologist by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and then specialized in Management of NGO’s by ESADE, it’s pretty clear the profile of professional and conscious person she wanted to be: a volunteer.

I feel so grateful about how comfortable she made me feel, the interview turned into a close conversation. I’ve learned so many things thanks to this great woman in such a short time! She showed being an expert on international affairs because -among other things.- I had not even warned about my visit.

We started talking about her current projects, in order to understand deeply what are her functions in the core of the NGO.  In fact, she and her team are working on the “Break Free from Fossil Fuels” international campaign. And many others such as the Artic and Amazonas Projects; also they are working on national issues as the bees affected by insecticides with neonicotinoids and the help to the artisanal fishermen. The women as one of the main collectives affected by climate change also play an important role in their agenda-setting.

“Environment is not isolated, we fight for reach a fair society passing through people rights to climate protection” she said. Apparently, both of them with nothing in common. The thing is that the ecosystem needs to be carefully protected by institutions: the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, the jobs we keep in order to survive, the home where we rest… and this is the aim of Greenpeace, rebuild an environment corrupted by corporations that, protected by states, destroys our ecosystems where human being, fauna, and flora must be keeping in balance. “We are living in a globalized world where the rules of the market are being imposed” she complained.

Related to “the water we drink”,  M. J. Caballero remind the situation living by the population along to the threatening pipelines of Keyston XL and Dakota. That last one, is feared because of the tribe’s water supply could be in danger and it also desecrated sacred lands. She said they and the population -without under the brand of Green Peace.- have stopped temporarily the construction of that pipeline. They are clearly more than social denouncement. They achieve real merits with real action.

resistAfter dissertation, I cut straight to the point, inquiring her about the “RESIST” banner by GREENPEACE USA in front of the White House and the consequent idea of political positioning or political lobbying that could be understood, she answered that Trump’s assumptions are totally against to the goals of the NGO and GP as a movement that pretends bring the power back to the people, they just pretend to protect the society from the threat that is living in their government by encouraging people. “We believe in a diversity world, far from xenophobia, racism, and sexism, and we are absolutely independent of political parties, nor ideologically neither economically speaking .” Obviously is the essence of any NGO being totally impartial in order to defend public interests, that specific topics states tend to avoid or forget.

Surprisingly, sometimes political parties and GP defend same laws reinforcements or paralyze them at international cooperation scenarios…

Protest ahead of Vote on EU-Canada Trade Deal at EU Parliament in Strasbourg


Action of GP while is approving CETA in the EuropeanParliament (Strasbourg)

…but with different intentions. Is the case of CETA agreement that was positively voted in European Parliament the past 15 of February. Between its opposition were Podemos, Marie Le Pen, and Los Verdes, for instance. Some because of their populist way to work and the achievement of their isolation aspirations; some others because of real worries about people and dangerous environment which is involved. And some, for the combination of both of those.

etiquetado-transgenicos

The label of any product

CETA is a new ‘toxic’ trade agreement between EU and Canada that allows the free exportation between its territories. Why is it ‘toxic’? Easy. It would be toxic for our European democracy which has restrictive politics about toxic elements of hormone foods and its labels (“If they take away from us the capacity to choose freely, what’s left?” warned M. J. Caballero), not to mention the specific Tribunal that is pretending to implement to judge harmful reports to that trade individually from European and national laws from the Member States; or the dismissing of employees, taking into account that a lot of current European trade of food are producers from our borders.

While we were discussing these topics, we realized that she was running out of time, and I didn’t want to obstacle the key role that she means in the team of Campaigns with such an important work to do in this shocking scenario. So we said goodbye at the shout of:

“The fight continues!”

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María José Caballero being interviewed by student Alba Tissera at the headquarter of GP in San Bernardo,107, Madrid.

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“It could become the most expensive waste of money in history”

Marina Barberá Matías

All the actions done by the president Donald J. Trump have been done to “make America great again” but despite of what people may say the intention is not what matters. Those political moves may produce different outcomes of those sought by Mr. Trump.

One of the f086c412irst decisions when he arrived to his actual position and one of the well-known promises done during the presidential campaign of Mr. Trump was the withdrawal of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Charles Kushner program director of the Bachelor in International Relations at IE University in Madrid Spain, sees it like the perfect opportunity for Canada to step into America’s leadership role in order to facilitate better trade, as Canada largely avoided the 2008 financial crisis by avoiding the risky banking practices that were responsible for the collapse, thus they are well poised to step into this leadership role.

Mr. Trump said “now American workers will be protected against competition from low-wage countries like Vietnam and Malaysia.” but the reasons established by experts for the manufacturing jobs decline differ from his. The central cause is the automation, which has developed into the decline of human labour. It is a fact that despite the decline in manufacturing jobs, the productivity in American factories has been increased. We are producing more while employing fewer. “This is exactly why Donald Trump’s plan to pull out of trade deals won’t only not bring back jobs to the American economy, it will actually hurt the economy further, as products exported by America would undoubtedly suffer with less trading partners.” Mr. Kushner said. The economic position of the U.S. as the world leader can be at risk by the isolationist strategy followed by Mr. Trump as affects their international image in the free market. Mr. Kushner said that in order to maintain its status as the beacon of the free world, America in fact needs to be a part of the world. It cannot afford to shut itself in behind pointless and costly walls.

Also, the acts done by the new president will without discussion cause changes on the relation between the U.S. and the countries from all around the world. The TPP was a pact in which the United States, the world’s largest economy and Japan, the third world largest economy, were together in a free-trade pact. The end of this agreement could cause some differences in the relation between Japan and the U.S., but the reality is that their relation despite the event from the past is better than the one that Japan has with its neighbours. “The dismantling of the TPP doesn’t affect current trade deals the U.S. and Japan share. Currently Japan is the United States 4th largest trading partner”. The relation among them will remain as usual but it is a fact that the withdrawal of the U.S. from the TPP will cause an economic vacuum that China will look forward to fill. It will be matter of time see if the relation between other members and the U.S. is enough to prevent China of fulfilling that position.

The relation with Mexico is the most affected by the actions of Mr. Trump as one of the most polemic orders is the construction of the wall in the frontier between Mexico and the United States. The main cause of its controversy is the dispute about who is going to pay for it, as the president of the United States has affirmed from the campaign that his country will not pay and the president of Mexico also declared that no Mexican money will be used for the construction of that wall, Mexico is face to face against the multimillionaire Donald Trump who has promised to find the way to make them pay and one of the ideas is through taxes. This will not be a good option as Mr. Kushner says that Mexican exporters would likely just raise taxes on American products as well as the prices of their own exports, resulting in price increases in the U.S. and ultimately the cost of the wall would be paid by Americans, not Mexico. Moreover, the construction of the wall will be unproductive as there are another ways through which the immigrants arrive to the U.S. so “it could become the most expensive waste of money in history as most undocumented immigrants in America fly into the country and overstay a valid visa.”