“For them, women are seen as weak toys and war’s weapons” Mr. O.O. Akinlude

Mr. O.O. Akinlude is the Consular and Immigration Minister of the Embassy of Nigeria in Madrid, Spain. As a specialist in International Relations and Immigration, he has a lot of experience on issues that concern West Africa, especially on issues directly related to Nigeria.

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The Islamic fundamentalist terrorist group Boko Haram due to the constant threat is  one of the main reasons why I chose a special representative in Nigeria. This group was founded in 2002 and since 2009 has provoked thousands of altercations where countries like Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Mali and most of Nigeria have been affected.

The first part to be analysed was the description of the current situation of Nigeria after the continuous attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram, as well as the handling of the situation by the government and economic impact to this fear in the country. His face of concern over the subject was clearly apparent. Akinlude began describing that the current situation was based on fear of any unexpected attack, stressing the complexity of anticipating the timing of these attacks. Akinlude emphasised the need for confidence and security on the part of the Nigerian population in the government but in turn empathized with the fact that it was a very complicated situation to demand that calm. He mentioned that since the death of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011, the entry of arms into Libya had increased considerably, as many barriers that were previously vetoed or closed were opened due to his death.

With regard to the economic impact, he emphasised the importance of Nigeria as one of the leading countries in the oil supply, being in 2017 the second behind Mexico with higher exports (8.1 million tons). But he also criticised the fact that it can not be further developed because of the conflicts that have arisen in recent years, which have damaged Nigeria’s economy.

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Continuing with the importance of the terrorist group Boko Haram in Nigeria, in the second part of the interview the questions were related to specific topics carried out by the group in recent years, where we highlight the kidnapping of 82 girls in Chibouk (north-eastern Nigeria) and attacks of suicidal children in the last two years. The question about the abduction procedure was very necessary, as well as the role of women as the object of these attacks. Akinlude explained that 200 girls were abducted on April 14, 2014 and in October 2016, 21 of them were released thanks to the help of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Switzerland), but that it was not until May 7 when the news of the release of 82 of them was announced. The recruitment of combatants through kidnappings is very common by the terrorist group, especially in the border territory with Chad, Cameroon and Niger. The release of the girls, according to Akinlude, was an exchange of prisoners of war belonging to the Boko Haram group.

The use of children with the target of suicide attacks was one of the points to analyse, where Akinlude gave a figure of 117 attacks. These were the attacks carried out by minors by the terrorist group Boko Haram (80% of the bombs are caused by children). Akinlude exemplified the detonation in 2016 at the mosque in Kolofata (10 people were killed), repeating itself in 2015.

Regarding the question about the role of the woman he commented, “For them, women are seen as weak toys and war’s weapons”. This is a very harsh, cruel, and real statement of how women are treated in these war processes. Women are seen more vulnerable and able to succumb to this type of terrorist groups, seeing this weakness in the same way the children.

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The third part of the interview was based on future interventions and aid with modernised material adapted to the fight against terrorism in Nigeria to combat this group, since in December 2016 it was believed to be crushed but the attacks continued. Akinlude stresses the current attitude of Russia, which has offered to give aid until 2018 (Covenant by Foreign Minister Geoffrey Onyeama). In addition, in this last year Cameroon has received a total of 96,000 refugees and in Diffa (north-eastern Nigeria) there are 240,000 displaced people fleeing the wars.

Finally I asked him a question about how he saw Nigeria in the future. He emphasized a small smile of hope showing the desire that this big problem, “Hell”, ends.

This interview has made me reflect on the problems that occur around us. Many times we see these problems so external to us that we do not give them the importance they have and after this interview I have felt very closed and I have been able to see the complicated situation of Nigeria more closely.

It was a pleasure to interview Mr O.O. Akinlude.

 

Andrea Centeno Pobre

 

Ethiopian athletes “cross” for their rights

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Reuters Media Express

The history of Ethiopia is complicated because of the different regimes and types of government the country has gone through the last decades. The last civil war in 1991 lead the country to a “democratic” system, where the president started to make political and social reforms. It has been 17 years since the independence of Ethiopia, but the people are still fighting for their rights. This is why some athletes, have shown their support in different ways when winning different competitions. By using their right of freedom of expression, we think that they are using properly their right to express their feelings against what is happening in their country.  

There are public personalities that have a lot of influence on people. Sports personalities are normally also spokesperson for brands and also having the opportunity to show the world what is happening in the world. Sports events become great opportunities for these protests and struggles for the rights of many countries to be seen and heard around the world. Many athletes are  even in danger of death by their own countries because of the impact that they cause with their gestures of protest. An example is the case of Feyisa Lilesa, an Ethiopian athlete who crossed his wrists on the head in relation to the Demonstrators of Oromo.

Doing sports can give you a lot of valuable lessons about life. It helps people of all ages to learn about hard work, dedication, respect and fairness. The last two are very important in this case. If one can learn how to respect others and treat them fair playing a sport, why should that not be possible in everyday life? We have many rules in sports to keep them organized and fair, however  when it comes to simple things in life as human rights, authorities ignore them in many cases. Athletes such as Feyisa Lilesa who is  a male distance runner is doing the right thing by protesting the killing of people in the Oromo region in his country. It is important for others to follow him, when it comes to causes related to human rights and lives.  

Politics and sports do not necessarily have to mix but if sports can help raise awareness for certain topics in politics and inform people than it is never frowned on. There have been many cases of confrontation surrounding  sports and political interests. Athletes from soviet countries had to propagate their regime and  if they weren’t willing to cooperate with the government there is a chance of being  executed or sent into work camps. A courage to express opinion with risking freedom is an admirable act. Human rights are an important topic and everyone should care about it. It is important to increase awareness on human right issues in the world.

The main problem is apathy, people disregard the human rights of third world countries as it is something that does not affect them. This is because it is not heavily promoted and also these countries are  far from them. People in this stressful time prefer focusing on themselves more than solving difficult situation in developing countries. Many people do not know about the situation in Oromo or even where it is.Who knows what tomorrow will bring, so we should appreciate the possibility of freedom and try to help those that are still fighting for rights that we take for granted.

Source: United News International

East African Community and European Union never ending ratification

With no agreement for the Economic Partnership between the European Union (EU) and the East African Community (EAC) in sight, the biggest question at this time is what is keeping the individual countries from finding common ground and if that could be expected soon.

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Source: Global Risk Insights

The region-to-region comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU) seems to be a controversial topic. Even if there is no media coverage on the European continent. The  goals are aimed to strengthen the relationship between the EU and the EAC and drive forward development. The EPA agreement is centered around the trade of goods.

The main objective is to achieve a duty-free and quota-free access to the EU market and to open the EAC market gradually. This means that an equivalent of 82.6% imports from the EU will be liberalized and there will be no changes on the import taxes for the next 25 years.

The EU has been trying to work on a ratification of the EPA since 2007. It seems most countries have a common opinion on the trade and are all ready to contribute to the increasing business relations in East Africa. The further points about economical, health and rural development will all be run with existing EU funds that do not affect the individual countries of the EU directly.

The countries of EAC have made attempts since 2007 to  gain access to the European market. Kenya and Rwanda succeeded first with the EPA consolidating their commercial position. On the other hand, it brought disadvantages. Kenya belongs to middle-income economies so it will be charged by higher taxes if the  EAC does not sign the EPA and it will influence Kenya’s economy negatively.

Tanzania is still considering the pros and cons of signing the deal by running a study first but there are two countries that oppose the request. Without a study Tanzania will not sign the trade deal with the EU,with one of its important European business partner being the United Kingdom.The EPA seems inconvenient after Brexit and the deal could damage relations with China Tanzania’s main Investor.

The EU imposed trade sanctions against Burundi that caused civil unrest and unwillingness to make a deal. The latest country be involved in the intergenerational process was  South Sudan.

Uganda is also preparing to sign however prefers to wait for all countries of the EAC. Permanent Secretary, ministry of Trade, Amb. Julius Onen, said: “We are not going to allow EPA to disfranchise EAC. What is happening now is that this issue (EPA) is being blown out of proportion by a group of people.” it is not the end of the world for the EAC region. “Uganda does not want to see a weakened EAC, this is why as a country we are trying to see that we are all pulling from the same direction.”

Regarding the signing of the trade treaty between the EU and the EAC, the UN think tank has warned the EAC not to sign the deal. This is because they have made studies to look up how the deal would favor the East African countries nonetheless this deal would not have a positive impact in the trade of this countries. “UNECA says the removal of taxes on capital goods from Europe will cause the EAC accumulated revenue losses of $1.15 billion per year.”

To conclude, several countries of the EAC are still examining the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of the trade. Some of them,  disagree due to higher taxes and stronger competition from the EU, it is a complex agreement that will still be negotiated for several years.

Source: CTGN AFrica

A moment with the consul of Burkina Faso

Interviewee : Karidia K. Friggit, Burkina Faso Honorary Consul in Madrid
This interview was held in French, because it is our common mothertong both to the consul and me. Therefore here it is a translation from French to English.
«Me: What did you do before becoming consul ?
Karidia K. Friggit: Well, I have a master of English. Then I moved to London with my husband, and because of my children, I did not want to work. But I was working voluntarily in an association. The association was called London Detained Support Group. I heard difficult stories so I took psychology lessons, to understand people and put distance between them and I . Simultaneously, I made a degree of interpret, which allowed me to be more independent when I had meeting with lawyer and refugees. So we stayed 7 years in London and after we moved to Madrid. We created a foundation to build primary schools and high schools in Burkina Faso. It was notably to help girls who usually who drop out of school early. Then we were searching for a consulate in Madrid, for the foundation, but there was not any in Madrid. I began to help the Embassy to find a consul, then they ask me to assume it. So now I am honorary consul.

What is an honorary consul ? What is the difference with a general consul ?
Honorary means that I am not paid, like volunteerism. It is a honorary title for the good actions I make and to represent the government abroad. Many countries create honorary consuls because it costs nothing to the government, unlike an Embassy or a general consulate. There is an Embassy of Burkina Faso in Paris, and I represent it here in Spain. At the beginning I had my office at home. Fastly the work became important, so we decided to buy rooms in 2014. Since 2012 I am accredited, it means that I am working as a consul. I am leading the foundation and a master in Sciences Po Paris at the same time.
What does the job of consul consist in?
I make visas, I take care of Burkina people’s passports : I receive their file and I send them.
I am a listening ear for Burkina people’s personal problems. But I am not here to give solutions, I am here to listen them and to let themselves finding solutions. When they have administrative problems, I redirect them to lawyers.
I make also conferences about the situation in Burkina Faso. But it is quite difficult because we do not have all the information here, when there was the attacks, or the coup d’état for instance. We organize manifestations, such as one on the 8th March, for women, or cine debates. However, I don’t do anything when I receive eviction notices of undocumented people. But if an undocumented person from Burkina Faso come here, I will redirect him to a lawyer.
Is Burkina Faso’s community important in Spain?
I would say that we are almost 300 people from Burkina Faso in Madrid and almost 3 000 in Spain.

And must they all come to Madrid when they need help from the consulate ?
I forgot to say that there are four consulates in Spain. I am in Madrid, there is another in Valencia, another in Andalucia, Almeria, and in Barcelone. They were created according to the needs, because Spain is wide. Before it was the French embassy who was treating the visas, now it is me. So we create the consulates in the cities where there are many people from Burkina Faso and in the cities where there are people who wants to go to Burkina Faso, where there is an interest for the country, with a lot of associations related to for instance.

What about the relations between Spain and Burkina Faso ?
They are complicated. Before, Burkina Faso’s government had private relations with the Spanish government. Now the new Burkina Faso’s government, in power since last December, try to implement new relations. At the consulate, we try to organize meeting to welcome Burkina Faso’s leaders. But it is difficult for them to understand that now there is not a government in Spain. They do not understand either that they could more cultivate ties with the Communidades, which are strongly independent, such as Navarre, which is two times Burkina Faso’s GDP. They prefer to wait for the new Spanish government. Moreover there are many Spanish NGOs in Burkina Faso, they are really involved, such as Caritas, Manos Unidas, which work with my Foundation on a project over a school, los Amigos de Rimquieta, who are taking care of more than 300 children who are
living in Ouagadougou streets. That’s why, we have to work more on the cooperation between Spain and Burkina. There is also a bilateral cooperation between the two countries over the renewable energies, notably the solar energy, over the agribusiness and the pharmaceutical industry. For instance for emergency medication, the notices are in Spanish so we try to cooperate to translate
them in French or English at least.»
Thanks to Karidia K. Friggit for answering my questions and to you Alana Moceri, to allow me to meet her.

Written by Ludivine Mouly

A lasting change of perspective

In February 2014 begun the second last cultural exchange between the two Tanzanian secondary schools Mkwakwani and Usugara, and the Norwegian high school Greveskogen VGS, in which six Norwegian students travel to Tanzania during the winter, followed by four Tanzanian students traveling to Norway in the month of May.

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James Magoma, Tanzania

James Magoma from Tanga, Tanzania and Mikkel M. Møystad from Nøtterøy, Norway, were two of the students who took part in the exchange project, funded by Vennskap Nord-Sør (Friendship North-South). In two separate interviews I got to hear some of the experiences Møystad and Magoma had from the exchange, as well as how they benefit from the experience 2 years after the exchange.

Before traveling to Tanzania, Møystad had very little knowledge about the region of Sub-Saharan Africa. He had some basic understandings of the situations regarding corruption and the generally lower standard of living, “I was surprised of how little I did know about the region” he said, going on to talk about how welcoming the people there were. He was surprised that the people of Tanzania was willing to give so much from themselves, when they didn’t necessarily have so much themselves.  

When asked about his expectations Magoma said he was looking forward to meeting new people, gaining new friends, being confronted with new cultures and finishing by saying, “none-the least enjoy myself”.

The project, arranged by the three schools involved is focusing on cultural exchange, friendship and demeanor towards cultures. Møystad and Magoma are both convinced that projects like this can be largely beneficial to the countries taking part in them. Møystad believes that he got to see a very honest side of Tanzania. In Western media we have a tendency to learn about the African continent as one place where people are poor and need our help. This project though, showed him both negative and positive sides of Tanzania. “I’m happy that I experienced Tanzania through a cultural exchange, because that makes me more capable to contribute with anything if I were to do a charity project later on”, he said. He also believes that the students from Tanzania got to see an honest version of Norway as well,

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Mikkel M. Møystad, Norway

showing them that Norway has faults, and that Norway can learn a lot from Tanzanian culture.

Magoma seemed to have the same view as Møystad, though he is also convinced that regular aid with regard to health and education is just as important. He believes that the project is very beneficial, not only to him, because, as he said it; “I normally share the experience I had in Norway with my colleagues. I might express to them how things are done there, and there are a lot of things that I see changing, through me.” James is also playing a leading role in student communities at his university, as well as his country, which is giving him the opportunity to share his experience with many people. He also experienced that the teachers that took part in the exchange changed as well: “Our teacher changed their perspectives. The way they face their students, the way they would associate with their colleagues and the way they teach. They improve.”

Magoma’s experience is reflected in Møystad’s view of what the students visiting Norway gained, experience-wise. Comparing the school-systems in both countries, one can argue that the Norwegian system works better. Møystad speaks about the Norwegian school system as a more open one, giving the students more freedom without leveraging the efficiency and outcome of the education. The Tanzanian schools suffer from often occurring absence of teachers in classes, and student misbehavior is punished with caning, which might differ in intensity from one school to another. Møystad is convinced that he got to portray a functioning school-system, where punishment of physical nature is unnecessary.

The different way of managing schools is not the only perspective Magoma brought home. In Tanzania there are generalized biases of the western cultures in the same that western cultures generalize Africa. “Many people say that all people in Europe is homosexual. But you learn that that is not true.” Many people also believe that there is no discipline or respect in the family structure. When sharing his experience with his friends and colleagues, Magoma changes their biases about family values and homosexuality.

Due to changes in the national budget in Norway, the project ended after the last group in 2015. The Norwegian government has argued that there is no effective, nor clear, benefit from such programs, a statement which is contradictory to Møystad and Magoma’s experience. Magoma has argued that the project is not efficient enough, but only because there were not more than two students from his school, Mkwakwani and two from Usugara that got to take part in it. He believes that the project could bring greater changes to his school and country if more people got the same experience as he did.

Written by Christer Myklebust.

Let’s connect Sub-Saharan Africa

We live in a highly connected world where there are few things that go by without it being spread all over the web. The internet, and the idea of being “connected” have become a major characteristic of our Western culture. On another side of the planet in Sub-Saharan Africa, progress is being made to bring that region into a “connected” culture. Africa is a large continent, with thousands of tribes and different languages. Exposing this region to an “online community” might bring the same unifying effect, we believe, as the language Swahili did in Tanzania.

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Picture retrieved from: Mistbreaker.com

The last annual report by internetsociety.org tells us that nearly half the worlds population is connected to the internet, most of whom are connected through the use mobile devices.This development has brought upon many changes to the way in which we go about our daily lives, bringing broader opportunities. The internet is a platform that is difficult to control. Iran for instance, as the Washington Post reports, continuously fail to keep its population off blocked websites like Facebook. The internet is a great place for likeminded people to meet, and can be an important tool for individuals in countries with restrictions to freedom of speech and freedom of assembly, as people can easily obtain anonymity and join forums to discuss cultural and political issues. In that sense, the internet can be a more effective tool for improving democracy than economic sanctions  will ever be.

The easy access to internet does of course come with its pitfalls, with issues like online drug markets and child pornography, but these issues aren’t unique to the internet and the online community. What is unique to the internet though, is the possibility to spread a common set of values in what we can call a “online public opinion”. If you go to popular “meme” and forum pages such as 9gag, reddit or imgur, you will see people across borders sharing images, often portraying a common set of values. These values are often in favor of democracy and against inequalities.

Furthermore, If we look at the possibilities regarding democracy, accessibility to internet would be a ground breaking means of educating  citizens and would encourage active political participation. Education, is of course the basis of democracy and indeed, people would then be  able to understand how the world is working and become critical on their own country’s functioning. Moreover, it goes without saying  that the Internet nowadays  can be regarded as the biggest resource of retrieving knowledge, as well as ideas from like minded people. By having access to Internet, literacy rates and knowledge on basic civil rights, health, sexuality, development and so on would rise exceptionally in all of Sub-Saharan Africa. It could perhaps also give citizens the means to  question dictatorships in this region, which are basically based on a form of obscurantism Internet access in this region would then  could then encourage future political participations for the generations to come. For example, Khan Academy is a free learning website where anyone who has access to Internet is then able to “learn anything”. The more , the people can access Internet, the more likelihood of younger generations gaining further education and knowledge to hopefully implement important sustainable changes in the region when they take over power positions.

Sub-Saharan Africa , however, still has a long way to go with only 17% of its population online, compared to North America’s 84%. But it’s growth rate is larger than most other regions. Projects to increase the internet access in the region are rare, but they exist. A satellite soon will be launched to provide internet to Africa according to Mark Zuckerberg. This project is held in partnership with the Facebook foundation, internet.org.

According to CNN  said Chris Daniels, VP of Internet.org the following in a statement“Facebook’s mission is to connect the world and we believe that satellites will play an important role in addressing the significant barriers that exist in connecting the people of Africa.”  The goal is to connect rural African areas to the internet. By this initiative, African people would be able to be interconnected but also connected to the whole world.The foundation also created ‘Free Basics’ which aims to provide basic mobile websites and services to mobile’s owners. Already, 85% of the world’s population lives in areas with existing cellular coverage so this project would be efficient to African people and increase their internet penetration rate. Half of the 40 Free Basics countries are now in Africa and Nigeria is the latest country to get access to its services dedicated to health, education, jobs, and finance. Mark Zuckerberg hopes also that internet connectivity would help to reach the UN’s Sustainable Development goals.

As this article argues, there are many aspects and benefits of the internet that intertwine. Through increasing internet access and exposing underdeveloped countries to the ideas of  “online public opinion”, we believe, it  can become a more effective  means compared to the traditional state-to-state aid. Giving people a platform to communicate is equivalent to making a platform to change. To change a society, people must connect. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from “severe distances”. The internet can virtually eradicate these distances and bring young people together. Rather than demanding the ruling generation to change, let’s give the next one a platform to do so.

 

Mombasa High Court: Kenya to declare anal examinations unconstitutional

Two men who were subjected to anal examinations to see if they had been involved in gay sex, have launched a case before the Mombasa High Court, calling for such tests to be declared unconstitutional.

Allegedly, following their arrest by Kenyan police in February 2015, the two men were also forced to take HIV and hepatitis tests on suspicion of homosexual activity. Like many African nations, homosexual activity is illegal in Kenya and is punishable by up to 14 years in prison, although violations are rarely prosecuted.

The two men stated that they  had been inserted with a tube-like object, yet the doctors claim they only had “their private parts observed” while lying down. Neela Ghoshal a senior LGBT researcher spoke of her view of the treatment saying that;

“Anal examinations prove nothing, and they accomplish nothing, other than humiliating and demeaning people who are considered moral outcasts.”

The Independent supports such views, reporting that ,the use of anal examinations to uncover homosexual activity is medically useless.  Moreover, The Human Rights Watch addressed the issue by condemning the treatment as not only degrading, but that it could also amount to torture under international law.

A UN special rapporteur stated in a report this year that “In States where homosexuality is criminalized, men suspected of same-sex conduct are subject to non-consensual anal examinations intended to obtain physical evidence of homosexuality, a practice that is medically worthless and amounts to torture or ill-treatment.”

In accordance with international law, the Human Rights Watch report that such treatment violates Human Rights under the UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Un Convention Against Torture as well as  African Convention on Human and People’s rights. All in which are signed and adopted by the state of Kenya.

Nevertheless, many other Sub-Saharan countries, like Kenya, have also implemented strict policies. For many countries in this region homosexuality is more than just a subject of taboo. In fact, it  is illegal in 37 African countries (see map at the end of the article).

Last year Gambian president Yahya Jammeh declared: “We will fight these vermis called homosexuals or gays the same way we are fighting malaria-causing mosquitoes, if not more aggressively.” Whilst in 2013, Uganda’s Parliament even passed an anti-homosexuality bill.

This topic seems to touch the entire African continent. Indeed, just last March, The Human Rights Watch claimed that Tunisia had prosecuted seven men for consensual same-sex intercourse and forcing some to undergo anal examinations

One of the seven students confessed: “ I felt like I was an animal, because I felt like I didn’t have any respect. I felt like they were violating me. I feel that even now. It’s very hard for me”.Human Rights Watch have called on the Tunisian parliament to cease using anal examinations as forensic evidence and to urgently decriminalize homosexuality.

Thus , to conclude,  the condemning of such acts  by many officials including the Human Rights Watch, despite the underlying issue of homophobic legislation throughout large parts of Africa, provides a strong case for the Mombasa High Court to declare such acts unconstitutional.

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Image retrieved from Washington Post