ISIS breaks European Security


After the recent attacks in Manchester there is no more ethics or rights to break, ISIS could have cross the line in which they don’t even care about the age of their victims. On the other hand, we have been looking to a security program in Europe that is not working and need to be change rapidly. But the real uncertainty is how much collaboration has been done by the states? And what is NATO working for? Europe’s security problem falls in the difference that live in their political beliefs. We are looking in the present to a breakable Europe that is losing security program options.

June 22nd, 2017 is a very sad date which will remember the whole world and more particularly England. Indeed, England was struck by a new terrorism attack in Manchester, the balance sheet of this attack 22 deaths and numerous wounded persons. It is the fifth time that England is a victim of these attacks, and only two months after London’s attack. That has provoked lots of reactions from the governments but also from the citizens. Indeed, from now on we can notice that there is a light intercultural split. Certain people point at the government’s decisions and at the set-up safety devices which are very too insufficient. Do these attacks create a wave of interrogation for the citizens are in safety and during how long this massacre goes to last?

Ariana Grande’s concert, idol of the children and adolescents, gathered Monday many of them and their parents, who come to accompany or to wait them at the end of the event that was supposedly one of the best night of their lives. Among those casualties and deaths, most of them were children and young adult.  The youngest one, a little girl had her life in front of her: Saffie Rose Roussos, only eight years old. Others aged of 15-29 years old, have also found the death. Per jihadist specialist David Thomson: “It is indeed possible that from the point of view of the IE, it is a weakness to show that the child has been spared”. This quote can be found during the attack that one of her suitors perpetrated in June 2016 for the murder of a couple and whose author hesitated to keep the child envious . So, we can conclude that targeting children are targets like others and can be an easy way to touch deeply the different cultures existing.

Despite these days, there are a lot of news justifying terrorists just because there are from an Islamic State. There are some terrorist who have European nationality and this is the case of Salman Abedi, the Manchester’s terrorist, who was born in Manchester. So obviously, he has the english nationality. Moreover, his parents were Libyan refugees who move to UK to be able to escape to the Gaddafi regime. It is thought that the family trips to Libya turn our terrorist into a person with a radical ideology.

To conclude with the security crisis in Europe as the political programs continue to be different and the policies do not mix them together, it will be easier every time to break the wellbeing of the citizens. This have been very influential to new political groups that has encourage people to fear and hate Muslims with discrimination. If we are going to fight for democracy and the freedom of the Europe’s society, global institutions like the UN and NATO should leader programs for union and stop the constant manipulation of companies that take advantage of the economic profit of war.

“Welcome our girls, welcome our sisters”

Boko Haram’s constant terrorist threat in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Mali has provoked a multitude of deaths and controversies in the last eight years (organization founded in 2002), whose aim is to declare the establishment of the Sharia as in force norm in all the conditions of Nigeria. This organization has provoked 20.000 casualties, the displacement of 1,5 million refugees and a humanitarian crisis without precedents in the North-East of Nigeria in its eight years of insurgency.

During one of the moments of Boko Haram’s maximum territorial expansion, on April 13, 2014, members of this terrorist group were penetrating a center of Chibok’s secondary education, to the Northeast of the country, kidnapping 276 teenagers, between twelve and seventeen years of age. Of the kidnapped girls, 57 could escape of his captors, but the rest disappeared.

Now 82 of the Chibok school girls have been returned in a trade deal between Boko Haram and the Nigerian Government. In order to retrieve the girls, five of Boko Haram commanders have now been set free. The Chibok girls gained attention after social media erupted with the hashtag #BringBackOurGirls, many public figures such as former United States First Lady Michelle Obama came out in support of the movements. As of today, there are still 113 girls held captive by Boko Haram.

For the return of the girls, some parents traveled to the capital to celebrate and to be with their daughters as soon as possible, meanwhile there are still parents worried about the 113 missing girls. Integrating these girls back to society is going to be a tough task as they faced unbelievable psychical pressure and violence without any hope for freedom. Because many of them were Christians they had to convert to Islam.  It followed marriage to their captor and childbirth somewhere in the forest. The others were forced to take part in suicide missions. The UN Special Rapporteurs stressed the necessity for useful measures to address stigma and rejection of women and people associated with Boko Haram by their families and communities.

As the girls return to their homes “the president was delighted to receive them and he promised that all that is needed to be done to reintegrate them into the society will be done,” said Femi Adesina. Their reintegration to the society will be supervised by government officials.

Even though President Muhammadu Buhari promised for his election to make the fight against Boko Haram and the return of the Girls his priorities it is unclear how active the terrorist group is now. Buhari late last year announced Boko Haram had been “crushed”. With the group, still in activity in Northern Nigeria and its surrounding countries Al Jazeera’s Ahmed Idris says, “A lot of people in Nigeria don’t believe that Boko Haram will simply release those girls after three years in captivity for nothing in return.”. This shows that even after the release of 21 girls last year and 82 now the population remains uncertain about their safety from the group and the power of the government.



Who is going to help the Roingyans? For the last couple of years more than 92.000 Rohingyans are fighting for survival against Myanmar’s military and police forces and fleeing to neighboring countries. The UN accuses Myanmar of ethnic cleaning and the local people are demanding justice to condemn the genocide of the Rohingyans.

Who is going to help the Roingyans?

For the last couple of years more than 92.000 Rohingyans are fighting for survival against Myanmar’s military and police forces and fleeing to neighboring countries. The UN accuses Myanmar of ethnic cleaning and the local people are demanding justice to condemn the genocide of the Rohingyans.

Burmese government forces committed rape and other sexual violence against ethnic Rohingya women and girls as young as 13 during security operations in northern Rakhine State in late 2016” said Human Rights Watch.

The Rohingya are a Muslim minority with a population of some two million people. Most of them live in Myanmar (approximately 800.000 remain in Myanmar) specifically in the Rakhine region in the north of the country. The rest are spread over other countries of Southeast Asia. About 200,000 in Bangladesh and 50,000 in Malaysia.

Although the situation is now critical, the Rohingyas have been persecuted by the government and the Myanmar authorities during the last decade. Between 1991 and 1992 they suffered a massive exodus to the neighboring country of Bangladesh. This is one of the burning examples of religion discriminations in the world. Myanmar is killing the Muslim minorities just because Myanmar is a Buddhist country. According to BBC, Myanmar claims that the Rohingyans are not from Myanmar, they are illegal migrants from Bangladesh. For survival they were forced to leave their country and go to neighboring Muslim countries like Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia etc.

According to the CFR Backgrounders, After attacks by Rohingya militants on border police posts on October 9, 2016, the Burmese military undertook a series of “clearance operations” in northern Rakhine State. Security forces summarily executed men, women, and children; looted property; and burned down at least 1,500 homes and other buildings. More than 69,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh, while another 23,000 have become internally displaced in Maungdaw district. There have always been differences between the Muslim minority and the rest of the population, mostly Buddhist. The government asserts that they are not Burmese citizens, because they speak another language, the color of their skin is different and their religion is different. But hatred was revived on May 28, 2012 when the corpse of a Burmese woman of Buddhist religion was found raped  and three Muslims were charged of it. Six days later, a crowd of Buddhists stopped a bus in which, they said, the culprits were traveling and killed ten Muslims. Groups of Muslims and Buddhists clashed in various locations in Rakhine to this day in which the figures of displaced people exceed 200,000 people in the last months alone. Moreover, now Bangladesh says that the Rohingyans are unwelcome, because already there are over 160 million people there and they can’t afford to serve more refugees.

The UN has already accused Myanmar of ethnic cleansing as it violates the international law ‘Jus cogens’.

The United Nations Organization and the governments of neighboring countries denounce and pressure Myanmar to solve the problem as soon as possible and end the murders and displacement. A difficult task if we have statements such as the following which came out of the mouth of a senior Burmese diplomat based in Hong Kong : “Actually, the Rohingya are not people from Burma, they are not from the same ethnic group. His complexion is dark brown and our complexion is soft, we are handsome too. They are ugly as orcs”


Bah’ism – hopes to unite the world and religious conflicts: An interview with Hutan Hejazi Marinez

The religion Baha’i Faith emerged from a political unstable climate in Iran in the middle of the 19th century has come to reach a number of 6 million believers scattered all over the world. Yet the world seems to know little about this interesting religion. Last year, however, the book “Baha’ism: History, transfiguration, doxa.” by Hutan Hejazi Martinez was out on the market and I had the privilege to meet him and discuss this Iranian religious movement.

Andersson: How did the idea to this book start?

Hejazi Martinez: My parents are Baha’is and I used to be, but I’m not any more. I got in contact with anthropology and I left the religion because I came to value the independence that anthropology brings more. I have still a good relationship with my family and among friends despite my break out from Baha’ism. I guess they just look upon me, shrug their shoulders and wonder “how did he end up on that path?” (Laugh) I guess I’m one of those children for whom the parents had other future profession hopes than what I actually turned out as. But I figure it’s like that in more or less every family and still they love you.

Andersson: After skimming through your book I got the impression of that this religion is quite complex and nothing you get to understand over a coffee break but could you try explaining the main idea of it?

Hejazi Martinez: Well, Baha’i is a growing religion that emerged from the Islamic branch of Shiite in Persia, today’s Iran, during the Quejar dynasty, in the middle of the 19th century. The religion is constructed around so called “communities” from local levels to the “Universal House of Justice”. Every level has a government consisting of 9 democratically chosen spiritual leaders where both women and men are accepted as equal leaders as men. For the Universal house of Justice are only men are allowed, though. They have several holy Scriptures but one “The book of Law” is superior all the others. Baha’i believes in a superior power but with more focus on the personal spiritual development to something better rather than submission and penance through punishment. Nevertheless it has a lot in common with the main world religions where prophets like Jesus, Muhammad, Moses and Buddha are considered as “messengers” and other important persons like Peter, Mark and Ali are “guardians” of Baha’i Faith. This movement is kind of a mix of different grasps of other religions, which makes it fairly accepting and opened, I think. The ideology or doxa was created by the modern messenger Báb and further developed by Bahá’u’lláa. The whole religious culture were soon exiled from Iran owe to the Shah and the Shia leaders disapproval of another religious values. The early Baha’is found a sanctuary in Haifa in Israel and from there Baha’i Faith spread to Europe, America and further.

Andersson: What does Baha’i look like in Iran today?

Hejazi Martinez: The Baha’i minority in Iran is living a quite complicated life hence their connections with Haifa and Israel. The delicate matter between Israel and Iran as well as the Baha’i’s history in Iran has resulted in the Iran government preventing Baha’i students attending public education, for example. But surly it still exist Baha’i believers even though temples and Baha’i based celebrations are kept in quiet. I recently red an article about Baha’is turning to the UN for support due to the Iranian treatment of their religious minority. That shows quite clearly the Baha’is situation in their home country.

Anderson: Baha’i Faith sounds quite open-minded hence the equalization of other religion’s messengers with Báb, but since the religion sprung out from Shi’ism shouldn’t it be accepted as just a branch of Islam?

Baha'i templel New Dehli, IndiaHejazi Martinez: Baha’i was in sociological terms considered as a Shi’ite sect but has lately been accepted as an independent religion. It has its grasps from Islam, for example a type of lent reminding of Ramadan and the Iranian new year Nowruz. Nevertheless, the cycle of life and death in Baha’i Faith is a bit different to Islam. Baha’is believe in eternal life but not through reincarnation. Instead you proceed to another world after death and your spirit continues in in another world and after that another in all eternity. This gives a chance of virtual and spiritual development through each new world for each soul. So this religion has its type of love message like any of the world religions, that love and care for others is one of the main achievement one should aim for. Still Baha’i Faith has its disadvantages for example the fact that females are accepted as equal men in the spiritual sphere except in the Universal House of Justice is indeed contradictory. And as to homosexuality and promiscuity a Baha’i don’t look upon it without inconvenience. Nevertheless we’re not talking about an exclusion from the society for having another sexual orientation, these kinds of discussions are simply kept in quiet.

Andersson: So maybe Baha’ism the best solution for agnostics or people that’s still searching?

Hejazi Martinez: (Laugh) Maybe so, considering the fact that it has gained 6 million followers during its few 166 years of existence, imagine what it can achieve in the next 150 years! I actually think that this religion has a future potential to grow, in numbers, within the next 100 years. A Baha’is  reason to exist is that he wishes to unite the world, not least the religious one. To recognize other religions attributes in yours shows a fairly open minded perspective and it regains in an openness to factors that normally exclude rather than unite people such as ethnicity, religion, culture and so forth.So why not. If agnostics struggle with what to believe in but are aiming for some kind of divine answers why not Baha’i that includes a bit from all the main world religions and foremost Islam, Judaism and Christianity. That sounds like a sound conclusion.

By Linn Andersson

About the author: Hutan Hejazi Martínez is a social and cultural anthropologist. He is a Professor of Social and Economic Thought, and Advocacy Groups, currently teaching at Universidad Europea de Madrid. He was born in Iran, grew up in Spain, spent time in Check Republic and moved to the U.S at the age of 18. In 2011 Hejazi’s book, “Baha’ism: History, Transfiguration, Doxa.” was published. It is based on his research for his Ph.D. at Rice University.